Hypometabolism exceeds atrophy in presymptomatic early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to compare brain atrophy with hypometabolism as preclinical markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by studying presymptomatic individuals from families with known early-onset autosomal dominant AD (FAD) carrying mutations in the Presenilin 1 gene.
Seven asymptomatic at-risk FAD individuals (age, 35-49 y; 4 women; education >/= 12 y) and 7 matched healthy control subjects received complete clinical, neuropsychologic, MRI, and (18)F-FDG PET examinations. Regions of interest (ROIs: whole brain [WB], hippocampus [Hip], entorhinal cortex [EC], posterior cingulate cortex [PCC], inferior parietal lobule [IPL], and superior temporal gyrus (STG]) were drawn on the MRI scans of all subjects and used to measure volumes on MRI and glucose metabolism (MRglc) from the MRI-coregistered, atrophy-corrected PET scans.
Compared with controls and after correcting for head size, MRI volume reductions in FAD subjects were restricted to the IPL (18%, P < 0.02). After atrophy correction and adjusting for pons MRglc, PET MRglc reductions were found in all FAD subjects compared with controls in the WB (13%), bilaterally in the IPL (17%) and in the STG (12%), and in the left EC (21%), PCC (20%), and Hip (12%) (P values < 0.05). PET MRglc measurements were consistently less variable than MRI measures, yielding significantly larger effect sizes in separating FAD from controls.
Presymptomatic FAD individuals show widespread MRglc reductions consistent with the typical AD PET pattern in the relative absence of structural brain atrophy. These data further suggest that PET MRglc measures may serve as biomarkers for the preclinical diagnosis of AD.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Benedetta Nacmias, May 29, 2015
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) using arterial spin-labeled MRI in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) mutation carriers (MCs) in relation to cerebral amyloid and compared with age-matched healthy controls.BACKGROUND: Recent work has identified alterations in CBF in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia using MRI. However, similar studies are lacking in ADAD. Subjects with ADAD are generally free of significant vascular disease and offer the opportunity to measure CBF early in the pathologic process before significant symptom onset when unique markers might be identified.METHODS: Fourteen MCs (presenilin-1 and amyloid beta precursor protein) (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 0 = 9, CDR 0.5 = 4, CDR 1 = 1) and 50 controls underwent 3-tesla pulsed arterial spin-labeled MRI. SPM8 was used to test the effect of MC status at the voxel level on CBF before and after controlling for age and CDR.RESULTS: MCs had decreased perfusion in the caudate and inferior striatum bilaterally even after controlling for age and CDR. In MCs, separate areas of decreased CBF were associated with increasing cerebral amyloid and to decreased performance of attention and executive function.CONCLUSIONS: Early CBF changes were identified in asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic subjects with ADAD, particularly in the anterior striatum. Furthermore, amyloid deposition was associated with decreased CBF in a number of regions including anterior and posterior cortical areas. Both amyloid and decreased CBF were associated with declines primarily in executive cognitive function.Neurology 07/2014; 83(8). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000000721 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Age-associated changes in brain imaging and fluid biomarkers are characterized and compared in presenilin 1 (PSEN1)E280A mutation carriers and noncarriers from the world's largest known autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (AD) kindred. To characterize and compare age-associated changes in brain imaging and fluid biomarkers in PSEN1 E280A mutation carriers and noncarriers. Cross-sectional measures of 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomography, 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, structural magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and plasma biomarkers of AD were assessed from 54 PSEN1 E280A kindred members (age range, 20-59 years). We used brain mapping algorithms to compare regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose and gray matter volumes in cognitively unimpaired mutation carriers and noncarriers. We used regression analyses to characterize associations between age and the mean cortical to pontine 18F-florbetapir standard uptake value ratios, precuneus cerebral metabolic rates for glucose, hippocampal gray matter volume, CSF Aβ1-42, total tau and phosphorylated tau181, and plasma Aβ measurements. Age at onset of progressive biomarker changes that distinguish carriers from noncarriers was estimated using best-fitting regression models. Compared with noncarriers, cognitively unimpaired mutation carriers had significantly lower precuneus cerebral metabolic rates for glucose, smaller hippocampal volume, lower CSF Aβ1-42, higher CSF total tau and phosphorylated tau181, and higher plasma Aβ1-42 measurements. Sequential changes in biomarkers were seen at age 20 years (95% CI, 14-24 years) for CSF Aβ1-42, age 16 years (95% CI, 11-24 years) for the mean cortical 18F-florbetapir standard uptake value ratio, age 15 years (95% CI, 10-24 years) for precuneus cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, age 15 years (95% CI, 7-20 years) for CSF total tau, age 13 years (95% CI, 8-19 years) for phosphorylated tau181, and age 6 years (95% CI, 1-10 years) for hippocampal volume, with cognitive decline up to 6 years before the kindred's estimated median age of 44 years (95% CI, 43-45 years) at mild cognitive impairment diagnosis. No age-associated findings were seen in plasma Aβ1-42 or Aβ1-40. This cross-sectional study provides additional information about the course of different AD biomarkers in the preclinical and clinical stages of autosomal dominant AD.JAMA Neurology 01/2015; 72(3). DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.3314 · 7.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pericytes are cells in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that degenerate in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by early neurovascular dysfunction, elevation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ), tau pathology and neuronal loss, leading to progressive cognitive decline and dementia. Pericytes are uniquely positioned within the neurovascular unit between endothelial cells of brain capillaries, astrocytes and neurons. Recent studies have shown that pericytes regulate key neurovascular functions including BBB formation and maintenance, vascular stability and angioarchitecture, regulation of capillary blood flow, and clearance of toxic cellular by-products necessary for normal functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we review the concept of the neurovascular unit and neurovascular functions of CNS pericytes. Next, we discuss vascular contributions to AD and review new roles of pericytes in the pathogenesis of AD such as vascular-mediated Aβ-independent neurodegeneration, regulation of Aβ clearance and contributions to tau pathology, neuronal loss and cognitive decline. We conclude that future studies should focus on molecular mechanisms and pathways underlying aberrant signal transduction between pericytes and its neighboring cells within the neurovascular unit, that is, endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons, which could represent potential therapeutic targets to control pericyte degeneration in AD and the resulting secondary vascular and neuronal degeneration.Brain Pathology 07/2014; 24(4):371-386. DOI:10.1111/bpa.12152 · 4.35 Impact Factor