Diabetes mellitus screening in pediatric primary care

Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.3). 11/2006; 118(5):1888-95. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2006-0121
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The goal was to determine the rates of diabetes screening and the prevalence of screening abnormalities in overweight and nonoverweight individuals in an urban primary care clinic.
This study was a retrospective chart review conducted in a hospital-based urban primary care setting. Deidentified data for patients who were 10 to 19 years of age and had > or = 1 BMI measurement between September 1, 2002, and September 1, 2004, were extracted from the hospital electronic health record.
A total of 7710 patients met the study criteria. Patients were 73.0% black or Hispanic and 47.0% female; 42.0% of children exceeded normal weight, with 18.2% at risk for overweight and 23.8% overweight. On the basis of BMI, family history, and race, 8.7% of patients met American Diabetes Association criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus screening, and 2452 screening tests were performed for 1642 patients. Female gender, older age group, and family history of diabetes were associated with screening. Increasing BMI percentile was associated with screening, exhibiting a dose-response relationship. Screening rates were significantly higher (45.4% vs 19.0%) for patients who met the American Diabetes Association criteria; however, less than one half of adolescents who should have been screened were screened. Abnormal glucose metabolism was seen for 9.2% of patients screened.
This study shows that, although pediatricians are screening for diabetes mellitus, screening is not being conducted according to the American Diabetes Association consensus statement. Point-of-care delivery of consensus recommendations could increase provider awareness of current recommendations, possibly improving rates of systematic screening and subsequent identification of children with laboratory evidence of abnormal glucose metabolism.

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine rates of diabetes screening in obese adolescents in an ethnically diverse primary care health care system before and after an internal recommendation to use HbA1c-based screening. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adolescents 12-18-years old with BMI > 95% were identified through electronic medical record review during two 18-month periods in 8 community health clinics and 13 school-based health centers: period 1 (P1, 19 April 2008 to 19 October 2009) and period 2 (P2, 3 May 2010 to 3 November 2011). Testing for diabetes in the 2 yr preceding the most recently elevated BMI was reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 2870 obese adolescents were identified in P1 and 3940 in P2. Ethnicity was primarily Hispanic, with smaller populations of Black and White youth. The percent of obese teens screened for diabetes increased from 40% in P1 to 47% in P2. Use of HbA1c increased 493% during P2. Older teens (>15 yr), those seen during P2, and those with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) were more likely to be screened. Record review confirmed equal rates of type 2 diabetes in the two periods: 8 incident (0.7%) cases in P1 and 13 (0.7%) in P2. CONCLUSIONS: The use of HbA1c, a non-fasting and logistically simpler test, was associated with increased diabetes screening in primary care. The percentage of screened patients with confirmed type 2 diabetes remained unchanged. Thus, despite potential pitfalls, the use of HbA1c for screening appears to be as successful as previous approaches in identifying adolescents with diabetes.
    Pediatric Diabetes 05/2013; 14(7). DOI:10.1111/pedi.12037 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: School-based health centers (SBHCs) may be an ideal setting to address obesity in adolescents because they provide increased access to a traditionally difficult-to-reach population. The study evaluated the feasibility of adding a health educator (HE) to SBHC teams to provide support and increase the delivery of preventive services for overweight or obese adolescents. Methods: Adolescents with BMI ≥85% recruited from two SBHCs were randomized to a control group (CG) or an intervention group (IG). Both groups received preventive services, including physical examinations and laboratory screening in the SBHC. The educator met with the IG during the academic year, utilizing motivational interviewing techniques to set lifestyle goals. Text messaging was used to reinforce goals between visits. Results: Eighty-two students (15.7±1.5 years of age; BMI, 31.9±6.2 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in the IG and 83 in the control group (16.0±1.5 years of age; BMI, 31.6±6.5 kg/m(2)). Retention was 94% in the IG and 87% in the CG. A total of 54.5% of the IG and 72.2% of the CG decreased or maintained BMI z-score (less than 0.05 increase; p=0.025). Sports participation was higher in the CG (47% vs. 28% in the IG; p=0.02). Mean BMI z-score change was -0.05±0.2 for students participating in sports vs. 0.01±0.2 for those not (p=0.09). Conclusions: This SBHC intervention showed successful recruitment and retention of participants and delivery of preventive services in both groups. Meeting with an HE did not improve BMI outcomes in the IG. Confounding factors, including sports participation and SBHC utilization, likely contributed to BMI outcomes.
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) makes it important for pediatricians to use effective screening tools for risk assessment of prediabetes/T2DM in children. Methods. Children (n = 149) who had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were studied. American Diabetes Association recommended screening criteria-HbA1c ≥5.7% and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥100 mg/dL-were compared against OGTT. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), a mathematical index derived from fasting insulin and glucose, was compared with OGTT. We studied whether combining screening tests (HbA1c and fasting glucose or HbA1c and HOMA-IR) improved accuracy of prediction of the OGTT. Results. HbA1c of ≥5.7% had a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 57% when compared with the OGTT. Combining screening tests (HbA1c ≥5.7% and FPG ≥100 mg/dL; HbA1c ≥5.7% and HOMA-IR ≥3.4) resulted in improved sensitivity (95.5% for each), with the HbA1c-FPG doing better than the HbA1c-HOMA-IR combination in terms of ability to rule out prediabetes (likelihood ratio [LR]) negative. 0.07 vs 0.14). Conclusions. HbA1c of ≥5.7% provided fair discrimination of glucose tolerance compared with the OGTT. The combination of HbA1c and FPG is a useful method for identifying children who require an OGTT.
    Clinical Pediatrics 03/2014; 53(8). DOI:10.1177/0009922814528571 · 1.26 Impact Factor

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