Article

Allosteric modulation of dopamine D2 receptors by homocysteine.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Modena, 41100 Modena, Italy.
Journal of Proteome Research (Impact Factor: 5.06). 12/2006; 5(11):3077-83. DOI: 10.1021/pr0601382
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It has been suggested that L-DOPA-induced hyperhomocysteinemia can increase the risk of stroke, heart disease, and dementia and is an additional pathogenetic factor involved in the progression of Parkinson's disease. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably cotransfected with adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D2 receptors, homocysteine selectively decreased the ability of D2 receptor stimulation to internalize adenosine A(2A)-dopamine D2 receptor complexes. Radioligand-binding experiments in the same cell line demonstrated that homocysteine acts as an allosteric D2 receptor antagonist, by selectively reducing the affinity of D2 receptors for agonists but not for antagonists. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that, by means of an arginine (Arg)-thiol electrostatic interaction, homocysteine forms noncovalent complexes with the two Arg-rich epitopes of the third intracellular loop of the D2 receptor, one of them involved in A(2A)-D2 receptor heteromerization. However, homocysteine was unable to prevent or disrupt A(2A)-D2 receptor heteromerization, as demonstrated with Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) experiments in stably cotransfected HEK cells. The present results could have implications for Parkinson's disease.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
195 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The oligomerization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a fact that deserves further attention as increases both the complexity and diversity of the receptor-mediated signal transduction, thus enriching the cell signaling. Consequently, in the present review we tackle among others the problems concerning the terminology used to describe aspects surrounding the GPCRs oligomerization phenomenon. Therefore, the theoretical implications of the GPCR oligomerization will be briefly discussed together with possible implications of this phenomenon especially for new strategies in drug development.
    Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research 10/2010; 30(5):287-303. · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase-like A (PTPLa) has been implicated in skeletal myogenesis and cardiogenesis. Mutations in PTPLa correlated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia in humans and congenital centronuclear myopathy with severe hypotonia in dogs. The molecular mechanisms of PTPLa in myogenesis are unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that PTPLa is required for myoblast growth and differentiation. The cells lacking PTPLa remained immature and failed to differentiate into mature myotubes. The repressed MyoG expression was responsible for the impaired myoblast differentiation. Meanwhile, impeded cell growth, with an obvious S-phase arrest and compromised G(2)/M transition, was observed in PTPLa-deficient myoblasts. Further study demonstrated that the upregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E2 complexes, along with a compromised G(2)/M transition due to the decreased CDK1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1) activity and upregulated p21, contributed to the mutant cell S-phase arrest and eventually led to the retarded cell growth. Finally, the transcriptional regulation of the PTPLa gene was explored. We identified PTPLa as a new target gene of the serum response factor (SRF). Skeletal- and cardiac-muscle-specific SRF knockouts resulted in significant decreases in PTPLa expression, suggesting a conserved transcriptional regulation of the PTPLa gene in mice.
    Molecular and cellular biology 11/2011; 32(2):297-308. · 6.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An elevated concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid is considered to be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Homocysteine (Hcy) levels are influenced by folate concentrations and numerous genetic factors through the folate cycle, however, their role in the pathogenesis of PD remains controversial. Hcy exerts a neurotoxic action and may participate in the mechanisms of neurodegeneration, such as excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, calcium accumulation, and apoptosis. Elevated Hcy levels can lead to prooxidative activity, most probably through direct interaction with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and sensitization of dopaminergic neurons to age-related dysfunction and death. Several studies have shown that higher concentration of Hcy in PD is related to long-term administration of levodopa (L-dopa). An elevation of plasma tHcy levels can also reflect deficiencies of cofactors in remethylation of Hcy to methionine (Met) (folates and vitamin B12) and in its transsulfuration to cysteine (Cys) (vitamin B6). It is believed that the increase in the concentration of Hcy in PD can affect genetic polymorphisms of the folate metabolic pathway genes, such as MTHFR (C677T, A1298C and G1793A), MTR (A2756G), and MTHFD1 (G1958A), whose frequencies tend to increase in PD patients, as well as the reduced concentration of B vitamins. In PD, increased levels of Hcy may lead to dementia, depression and progression of the disease.
    Current Genomics 12/2013; 14(8):534-42. · 2.48 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
51 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014