Calcium and dairy intakes of adolescents are associated with their home environment, taste preferences, personal health beliefs, and meal patterns.
ABSTRACT To identify correlates of calcium, dairy, and milk intakes among male and female adolescents.
Cross-sectional study design. Adolescents self-reported measures pertaining to correlates on the Project EAT (Eating Among Teens) survey and completed a food frequency questionnaire at school.
Subjects were a total of 4,079 middle and high school students from Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, public schools.
Multiple linear regression models based on social cognitive theory were examined by sex.
Male adolescents reported higher daily intakes of calcium (male: 1,217+/-663 mg; female: 1,035+/-588 mg; P<0.001), dairy servings (male: 2.9+/-1.9; female: 2.4+/-1.7; P<0.001), and milk servings (male: 2.0+/-1.5; female: 1.5+/-1.4; P<0.001) than female adolescents. Calcium intakes of male adolescents were significantly and positively related to availability of milk at meals, taste preference for milk, eating breakfast, higher socioeconomic status, and social support for healthful eating; intakes were significantly and inversely related to consumption of soft drinks and fast food. Among female adolescents, availability of milk at meals, taste preference for milk, eating breakfast, higher socioeconomic status, personal health/nutrition attitudes, and self-efficacy to make healthful food choices were significantly and positively related to intakes; intakes were significantly and inversely related to fast-food consumption. Models of calcium intake explained 71% of the variance in male adolescents and 72% of the variance in female adolescents.
Multicomponent interventions with a focus on the family environment are likely to be most effective in increasing calcium intakes among adolescents.
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ABSTRACT: Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with one's family are associated with better dietary quality and healthy body weight for youth. Given the poor dietary quality of many youth, potential benefits of family meals for better nutritional intake and great variation in family meals, development and evaluation of interventions aimed at improving and increasing family meals are needed. This paper presents the design of key intervention components and process evaluation of a community-based program (Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus) to prevent obesity. The HOME Plus intervention was part of a two-arm (intervention versus attention-only control) randomized-controlled trial. Ten monthly, two-hour sessions and five motivational/goal-setting telephone calls to promote healthy eating and increasing family meals were delivered in community-based settings in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. The present study included 81 families (8-12 year old children and their parents) in the intervention condition. Process surveys were administered at the end of each intervention session and at a home visit after the intervention period. Chi-squares and t-tests were used for process survey analysis. The HOME Plus program was successfully implemented and families were highly satisfied. Parents and children reported that the most enjoyable component was cooking with their families, learning how to eat more healthfully, and trying new recipes/foods and cooking tips. Average session attendance across the ten months was high for families (68%) and more than half completed their home activities. Findings support the value of a community-based, family-focused intervention program to promote family meals, limit screen time, and prevent obesity. NCT01538615.International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 04/2015; 12(1):53. DOI:10.1186/s12966-015-0211-7 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sufficient dairy food consumption during adolescence is necessary for preventing disease. While socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume few dairy foods, some eat quantities more in line with dietary recommendations despite socio-economic challenges. Socio-economic variations in factors supportive of adolescents' frequent dairy consumption remain unexplored. The present study aimed to identify cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between intrapersonal, social and environmental factors and adolescents' frequent dairy consumption at baseline and two years later across socio-economic strata, and to examine whether socio-economic position moderated observed effects. Online surveys completed at baseline (2004-2005) and follow-up (2006-2007) included a thirty-eight-item FFQ and questions based on social ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental dietary influences. Thirty-seven secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Australian adolescents (n 1201) aged 12-15 years, drawn from a sub-sample of 3264 adolescents (response rate=33 %). While frequent breakfast consumption was cross-sectionally associated with frequent dairy consumption among all adolescents, additional associated factors differed by socio-economic position. Baseline dairy consumption longitudinally predicted consumption at follow-up. No further factors predicted frequent consumption among disadvantaged adolescents, while four additional factors were predictive among advantaged adolescents. Socio-economic position moderated two predictors; infrequently eating dinner alone and never purchasing from school vending machines predicted frequent consumption among advantaged adolescents. Nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving adolescents' dairy consumption should employ multifactorial approaches informed by social ecological models and address socio-economic differences in influences on eating behaviours; e.g. selected intrapersonal factors among all adolescents and social factors (e.g. mealtime rules) among advantaged adolescents.Public Health Nutrition 02/2015; DOI:10.1017/S1368980015000324 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study tests the effects of feedback from a virtual pet on behavior change. A randomized field experiment with 39 adolescents in the US examined how a mobile phone game influenced their likelihood to eat breakfast. Manipulations included varying positive and negative visual feedback in response to participants' photos of breakfast meals. Results indicate that participants with a virtual pet that provided both positive and negative feedback were twice as likely to eat breakfast than those with a pet that provided only positive feedback or participants in the control condition.Journal of Children and Media 02/2012; 6(1):83-99. DOI:10.1080/17482798.2011.633410