Calcium and dairy intakes of adolescents are associated with their home environment, taste preferences, personal health beliefs, and meal patterns.
ABSTRACT To identify correlates of calcium, dairy, and milk intakes among male and female adolescents.
Cross-sectional study design. Adolescents self-reported measures pertaining to correlates on the Project EAT (Eating Among Teens) survey and completed a food frequency questionnaire at school.
Subjects were a total of 4,079 middle and high school students from Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, public schools.
Multiple linear regression models based on social cognitive theory were examined by sex.
Male adolescents reported higher daily intakes of calcium (male: 1,217+/-663 mg; female: 1,035+/-588 mg; P<0.001), dairy servings (male: 2.9+/-1.9; female: 2.4+/-1.7; P<0.001), and milk servings (male: 2.0+/-1.5; female: 1.5+/-1.4; P<0.001) than female adolescents. Calcium intakes of male adolescents were significantly and positively related to availability of milk at meals, taste preference for milk, eating breakfast, higher socioeconomic status, and social support for healthful eating; intakes were significantly and inversely related to consumption of soft drinks and fast food. Among female adolescents, availability of milk at meals, taste preference for milk, eating breakfast, higher socioeconomic status, personal health/nutrition attitudes, and self-efficacy to make healthful food choices were significantly and positively related to intakes; intakes were significantly and inversely related to fast-food consumption. Models of calcium intake explained 71% of the variance in male adolescents and 72% of the variance in female adolescents.
Multicomponent interventions with a focus on the family environment are likely to be most effective in increasing calcium intakes among adolescents.
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ABSTRACT: Studies in the United States report inclusion of flavoured milk in the diets of children and youth improves nutrient intakes. No research has investigated the contribution of flavoured milk to overall milk intake or the milk preferences of Canadian children. The objective of the study was to measure milk consumption (plain milk and flavoured milk) by children in an elementary school environment and investigate factors contributing to milk choice. A mixed-method research design was applied across 6 schools for 12 weeks. Milk waste was measured in grades 1-8 for 12 weeks. Weeks 1-4 (phase 1) and 9-12 (phase 3) provided both plain milk and flavoured milk as chocolate milk while weeks 5-8 (phase 2) provided plain milk only. Beverage Frequency Questionnaires were used in each phase (in grades 5-8 only) to assess usual beverage consumption. Statistical nutrient modelling was conducted to determine the effects of removing chocolate milk during phase 2 as a milk choice. Later, focus groups were conducted with students in grades 5-8 to determine what influences them to choose/not choose to drink milk. Total milk intake decreased by 12.3% when chocolate milk was removed from the schools (26.6% ± 5.2% to 14.31% ± 1.6%, p < 0.001). Milk choice was influenced by environmental factors as well as taste, cost, convenience, and variety. Total milk intake was associated with location (p = 0.035) and cost (p < 0.001), with rural students and/or those students receiving free milk drinking the greatest amount of milk. Nutrient modelling revealed chocolate milk is more cost-efficient and convenient at providing nutrients than alternative food/drink combinations.Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 01/2015; 40(3):1-6. DOI:10.1139/apnm-2014-0242 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity is a worldwide health concern with a multifaceted and sometimes confounding etiology. Dairy products have been implicated as both pro- and anti-obesogenic, perhaps due to the confounding relationship between dairy, lactose consumption, and potential genetic predisposition. We aimed to understand how lactase persistence influenced obesity-related traits by observing the relationships among lactose consumption, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the lactase (LCT) gene and body composition parameters in a sample of multiethnic children (n = 296, 7-12 years old). We hypothesized that individuals with the lactase persistence (LP) allele of the LCT SNP (rs4988235) would exhibit a greater degree of adiposity and that this relationship would be mediated by lactose consumption. Body composition variables were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry and a registered dietitian assessed dietary intake of lactose. Statistical models were adjusted for sex, age, pubertal stage, ethnic group, genetic admixture, socio-economic status, and total energy intake. Our findings indicate a positive, significant association between the LP allele and body mass index (p = 0.034), fat mass index (FMI) (p = 0.043), and waist circumference (p = 0.008), with associations being stronger in males than in females. Our results also reveal that lactose consumption is positively and nearly significantly associated with FMI.Genes & Nutrition 03/2013; 8(5). DOI:10.1007/s12263-013-0335-9 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using data from a Canadian national survey assessing dairy product preferences in 2011, individual preferences for milk and yogurts with specific attributes are examined in this study. Statements developed based on the Health Belief Model, food attitudes, beliefs about the role that nutrition plays in health, nutrition knowledge, and an individual’s propensity to make changes to improve their health are used to predict whether or not respondents consume milk/yogurt, the frequency with which they consume it, which type of product they typically consume, and how much they would be willing to pay for new milk or yogurt attributes. Results indicate that several aspects of the Health Belief Model as well as general nutrition knowledge can predict purchasing and consumption intentions for milk and yogurt products. All else being equal, the influences on an individual’s willingness to pay for unique milk or yogurt characteristics in stated choices are different then the influences on their self-identified willingness to seek out milk or yogurt to increase calcium in their diet.