Phenotypic variability of a 4q34-->qter inherited deletion: MRKH syndrome in the daughter, cardiac defect and Fallopian tube cancer in the mother.
ABSTRACT Terminal deletions of the long arm of chromosome 4 are associated with a recognizable phenotype consisting of dysmorphic facial features, cleft palate, upper and lower limb malformations, cardiac defects and growth and mental retardation. Here we report on two female patients, a mother and her daughter, carrying the same 4q34-->qter deletion but presenting with a different phenotype. The mother's presentation is consistent with previous findings in patients with terminal deletions of the long arm of chromosome 4. However, she presented at the age of 54years with bilateral serous carcinoma of the Fallopian tubes, a rare gynaecologic cancer that might be attributed to the haploinsufficiency of the tumor suppressor gene FAT. The daughter presented isolated congenital aplasia of the uterus and vagina, the prime feature of the MRKH syndrome. This has not been described before in association with a 46,XX,del(4)(q34qter).
Article: Recurrent microdeletion at 17q12 as a cause of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome: two case reports.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH) consists of congenital aplasia of the uterus and the upper part of vagina due to anomalous development of Müllerian ducts, either isolated or associated with other congenital malformations, including renal, skeletal, hearing and heart defects. This disorder has an incidence of approximately 1 in 4500 newborn girls and the aetiology is poorly understood. we report on two patients affected by MRKH syndrome in which array-CGH analysis disclosed an identical deletion spanning 1.5 Mb of genomic DNA at chromosome 17q12. One patient was affected by complete absence of uterus and vagina, with bilaterally normal ovaries, while the other displayed agenesis of the upper part of vagina, right unicornuate uterus, non cavitating rudimentary left horn and bilaterally multicystic kidneys. The deletion encompassed two candidate genes, TCF2 and LHX1. Mutational screening of these genes in a selected group of 20 MRKH females without 17q12 deletion was negative. Deletion 17q12 is a rare albeit recurrent anomaly mediated by segmental duplications, previously reported in subjects with developmental kidney abnormalities and diabetes. The present two patients expand the clinical spectrum associated with this imbalance and suggest that this region is a candidate locus for a subset of MRKH syndrome individuals, with or without renal defects.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 11/2009; 4:25. · 5.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by congenital aplasia of the uterus and the upper part (2/3) of the vagina in women showing normal development of secondary sexual characteristics and a normal 46, XX karyotype. It affects at least 1 out of 4500 women. MRKH may be isolated (type I) but it is more frequently associated with renal, vertebral, and, to a lesser extent, auditory and cardiac defects (MRKH type II or MURCS association). The first sign of MRKH syndrome is a primary amenorrhea in young women presenting otherwise with normal development of secondary sexual characteristics and normal external genitalia, with normal and functional ovaries, and karyotype 46, XX without visible chromosomal anomaly. The phenotypic manifestations of MRKH syndrome overlap with various other syndromes or associations and thus require accurate delineation. For a long time the syndrome has been considered as a sporadic anomaly, but increasing number of familial cases now support the hypothesis of a genetic cause. In familial cases, the syndrome appears to be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. This suggests the involvement of either mutations in a major developmental gene or a limited chromosomal imbalance. However, the etiology of MRKH syndrome still remains unclear. Treatment of vaginal aplasia, which consists in creation of a neovagina, can be offered to allow sexual intercourse. As psychological distress is very important in young women with MRKH, it is essential for the patients and their families to attend counseling before and throughout treatment.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 02/2007; 2:13. · 5.83 Impact Factor