Article

Oligomerization of CXCL10 is necessary for endothelial cell presentation and in vivo activity.

Division of Rheumatology, Allergy, and Immunology, Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 12/2006; 177(10):6991-8. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.177.10.6991
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The chemokine IFN-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10; CXCL10) plays an important role in the recruitment of activated T lymphocytes into sites of inflammation by interacting with the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR3. IP-10, like other chemokines, forms oligomers, the role of which has not yet been explored. In this study, we used a monomeric IP-10 mutant to elucidate the functional significance of oligomerization. Although monomeric IP-10 had reduced binding affinity for CXCR3 and heparin, it was able to induce in vitro chemotaxis of activated T cells with the same efficacy as wild-type IP-10. However, monomeric IP-10 was unable to induce recruitment of activated CD8+ T cells into the airways of mice after intratracheal instillation. Use of a different IP-10 mutant demonstrated that this inability was due to lack of oligomerization rather than reduced CXCR3 or heparin binding. Molecular imaging demonstrated that both wild-type and monomeric IP-10 were retained in the lung after intratracheal instillation. However, in vitro binding assays indicated that wild-type, but not monomeric, IP-10 was retained on endothelial cells and could induce transendothelial chemotaxis of activated T cells. We therefore propose that oligomerization of IP-10 is required for presentation on endothelial cells and subsequent transendothelial migration, an essential step for lymphocyte recruitment in vivo.

Full-text

Available from: Jan Grimm, Sep 26, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
170 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The control of cell migration by chemokines involves interactions with two types of receptors: seven transmembrane chemokine-type G protein-coupled receptors and cell surface or extracellular matrix-associated glycosaminoglycans. Coordinated interaction of chemokines with both types of receptors is required for directional migration of cells in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Accumulated structural information, culminating most recently in the structure of a chemokine receptor in complex with a chemokine, has led to a view where chemokine oligomers bind to glycosaminoglycans through epitopes formed when chemokine subunits come together, while chemokine monomers bind to receptors in a pseudo two-step mechanism of receptor activation. Exploitation of this structural knowledge has and will continue to provide important information for therapeutic strategies, as described in this review.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 24 February 2015; doi:10.1038/icb.2015.15.
    Immunology and Cell Biology 02/2015; 93(4). DOI:10.1038/icb.2015.15 · 4.21 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sixteen years ago, the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology approved a system for naming human seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, the large family of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors that regulates immune system development and function, in large part by mediating leukocyte trafficking. This was announced in Pharmacological Reviews in a major overview of the first decade of research in this field [Murphy PM, Baggiolini M, Charo IF, Hébert CA, Horuk R, Matsushima K, Miller LH, Oppenheim JJ, and Power CA (2000) Pharmacol Rev 52:145-176]. Since then, several new receptors have been discovered, and major advances have been made for the others in many areas, including structural biology, signal transduction mechanisms, biology, and pharmacology. New and diverse roles have been identified in infection, immunity, inflammation, development, cancer, and other areas. The first two drugs acting at chemokine receptors have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), maraviroc targeting CCR5 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, and plerixafor targeting CXCR4 for stem cell mobilization for transplantation in cancer, and other candidates are now undergoing pivotal clinical trials for diverse disease indications. In addition, a subfamily of atypical chemokine receptors has emerged that may signal through arrestins instead of G proteins to act as chemokine scavengers, and many microbial and invertebrate G protein-coupled chemokine receptors and soluble chemokine-binding proteins have been described. Here, we review this extended family of chemokine receptors and chemokine-binding proteins at the basic, translational, and clinical levels, including an update on drug development. We also introduce a new nomenclature for atypical chemokine receptors with the stem ACKR (atypical chemokine receptor) approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology and the Human Genome Nomenclature Committee.
    Pharmacological reviews 01/2014; 66(1):1-79. DOI:10.1124/pr.113.007724 · 18.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Structural analyses of protein-protein interactions are required to reveal their functional mechanisms, and accurate protein-protein complex models, based on experimental results, are the starting points for drug development. In addition, structural information about proteins under physiologically relevant conditions is crucially important for understanding biological events. However, for proteins such as those embedded in lipid bilayers and transiently complexed with their effectors under physiological conditions, structural analyses by conventional methods are generally difficult, due to their large molecular weights and inhomogeneity. We have developed the cross-saturation (CS) method, which is an nuclear magnetic resonance measurement technique for the precise identification of the interfaces of protein-protein complexes. In addition, we have developed an extended version of the CS method, termed transferred cross-saturation (TCS), which enables the identification of the residues of protein ligands in close proximity to huge (>150 kDa) and heterogeneous complexes under fast exchange conditions (>0.1 s-1). Here, we discuss the outline, basic theory, and practical considerations of the CS and TCS methods. In addition, we will review the recent progress in the construction of models of protein-protein complexes, based on CS and TCS experiments, and applications of TCS to in situ analyses of biologically and medically important proteins in physiologically relevant states.
    Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics 02/2009; 54(2):123-140. DOI:10.1016/j.pnmrs.2008.07.001 · 10.08 Impact Factor