Haplotype spanning TTC12 and ANKK1, flanked by the DRD2 and NCAM1 loci, is strongly associated to nicotine dependence in two distinct American populations
ABSTRACT Nicotine dependence (ND) is a moderately heritable trait. We ascertained a set of 1615 subjects in 632 families [319 African-American (AA) and 313 European-American (EA)] based on affected sibling pairs with cocaine or opioid dependence. Subjects were interviewed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA). Previously, we identified a modest linkage peak (LOD score =1.97) for ND in the EA part of the sample on chromosome 11q23, a region that includes the NCAM1-TTC12-ANKK1-DRD2 gene cluster. DRD2 and NCAM1 are functional candidate genes for substance dependence; the TTC12 and ANKK1 loci are not well characterized. We genotyped a set of 43 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning this region, and performed family-based association and haplotype analysis. There was relatively weak evidence for association of the flanking DRD2 and NCAM1 markers to ND, but very strong evidence of association of multiple SNPs at TTC12 and ANKK1 in both populations (minimal P=0.0007 in AAs and minimal P=0.00009 in EAs), and in the pooled sample, as well as strong evidence for highly significant association of a single haplotype spanning TTC12 and ANKK1 to ND in the pooled sample (P=0.0000001). We conclude that a risk locus for ND, important both in AAs and EAs, maps to a region that spans TTC12 and ANKK1. Functional studies of these loci are warranted. These results provide additional information useful in evaluating the many earlier discrepant findings regarding association of DRD2 with substance dependence.
- SourceAvailable from: Xingguang Luo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify novel, functional, replicable and genome-wide significant risk regions specific for alcohol dependence using genome-wide association studies (GWASs). METHODS: A discovery sample (1409 European-American cases with alcohol dependence and 1518 European-American controls) and a replication sample (6438 European-Australian family subjects with 1645 alcohol dependent probands) underwent association analysis. Nineteen other cohorts with 11 different neuropsychiatric disorders served as contrast groups. Additional eight samples underwent expression quantitative locus (eQTL) analysis. RESULTS: A genome-wide significant risk gene region (NKAIN1-SERINC2) was identified in a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication samples. This region was enriched with 74 risk SNPs (unimputed); half of them had significant cis-acting regulatory effects. The distributions of -log(p) values for the SNP-disease associations or SNP-expression associations in this region were consistent throughout eight independent samples. Furthermore, imputing across the NKAIN1-SERINC2 region, we found that among all 795 SNPs in the discovery sample, 471 SNPs were nominally associated with alcohol dependence (1.7×10-7≤p≤0.047); 53 survived region- and cohort-wide correction for multiple testing; 92 SNPs were replicated in the replication sample (0.002≤p≤0.050). This region was neither significantly associated with alcohol dependence in African-Americans, nor with other non-alcoholism diseases. Finally, transcript expression of genes in NKAIN1-SERINC2 was significantly (p<3.4×10-7) associated with expression of numerous genes in the neurotransmitter systems or metabolic pathways previously associated with alcohol dependence. CONCLUSION: NKAIN1-SERINC2 may harbor a causal variant(s) for alcohol dependence. It may contribute to the disease risk by way of neurotransmitter systems or metabolic pathways.Drug and alcohol dependence 02/2013; 129(3). DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.02.006 · 3.28 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Here we summarize evidence obtained by our group during the last two decades, and contrasted it with a review of related data from the available literature to show that behavioral syndromes involving attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), externalizing disorders, and substance-use disorder (SUD) share similar signs and symptoms (i.e., have a biological basis as common syndromes), physiopathological and psychopathological mechanisms, and genetic factors. Furthermore, we will show that the same genetic variants harbored in different genes are associated with different syndromes and that non-linear interactions between genetic variants (epistasis) best explain phenotype severity, long-term outcome, and response to treatment. These data have been depicted in our studies by extended pedigrees, where ADHD, externalizing symptoms, and SUD segregate and co-segregate. Finally, we applied here a new formal network analysis using the set of significantly replicated genes that have been shown to be either associated and/or linked to ADHD, disruptive behaviors, and SUD in order to detect significantly enriched gene categories for protein and genetic interactions, pathways, co-expression, co-localization, and protein domain similarity. We found that networks related to pathways involved in axon guidance, regulation of synaptic transmission, and regulation of transmission of nerve impulse are overrepresented. In summary, we provide compiled evidence of complex networks of genotypes underlying a wide phenotype that involves SUD and externalizing disorders.Human Genetics 04/2012; 131(6):917-29. DOI:10.1007/s00439-012-1164-4 · 4.52 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To test the importance of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) region in nicotine dependence, 150 smokers and 228 controls were genotyped for the DRD2 C957T, -141delC and ANKK1 TaqIA polymorphisms (rs6277, rs1799732 and rs1800497, respectively). The -141delC SNP did not show any association but both the C957T and TaqIA SNPs showed association at the allele, genotype, haplotype and combined genotype levels. The 957C/TaqI A1 haplotype was more than 3.5 times as likely to be associated with nicotine dependence compared with the 957T/TaqI A1 haplotype (P=0.003). Analysis of the combined genotypes of both SNPs revealed that individuals who were homozygous for the 957C-allele (CC) and had either one or two copies of the TaqI A1-allele were 3.3 times as likely to have nicotine dependence compared to all other genotype combinations (P=0.0003) and that these genotypes accounted for approximately 13% of the susceptibility to nicotine addiction in our population. Our findings suggest that the DRD2 C957T polymorphism and the ANKK1 TaqIA polymorphism are key contributors to the genetic susceptibility to nicotine dependence.Psychiatry Research 02/2012; 196(2-3):285-9. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2011.09.024 · 2.68 Impact Factor