NADPH oxidase subunits (NOX-1, p22(phox), Rac-1) and tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity in a rat renal transplant model

Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.58). 03/2007; 22(2):376-85. DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfl608
Source: PubMed


TGF-beta and oxidative stress are known mediators of renal injury. However, the precise mechanisms by which TGF-beta and oxidative stress may be involved in the development of nephrotoxicity are not known. We examined whether anti-TGF-beta antibody limits nephrotoxicity produced by tacrolimus (TAC) and whether this altered genes that regulate oxidative stress.
Renal transplants were performed in Wistar-Furth and Lewis rat strains. Groups included: isograft controls; untreated allografts; allografts treated with 0.25 mg/kg TAC till 90 days with or without 1.0 mg/kg anti-TGF-beta antibody or control antibody. Serum creatinine and BUN levels and renal histology were determined. Real time PCR and western analysis were used to quantify mRNA and protein expression.
BUN and creatinine were elevated in TAC-treated rats. TAC increased expression of TGF-beta (37-fold) and NADPH oxidase subunits, NOX-1 (18-fold), p22(phox) (31-fold) and Rac-1 mRNA (20-fold), respectively. Contrariwise, expression of antioxidant genes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thioredoxin (TRX) was decreased. Anti-TGF-beta antibody but not control antibody reversed the TAC-induced changes in gene expression, renal histology and function.
Our findings suggest a potential for anti-TGF-beta antibody as a novel adjunct therapeutic tool to prevent TAC-induced nephrotoxicity in transplant recipients. The mechanism of protection involves suppression of TGF-beta and the expression of genes that regulate oxidative stress. Moreover, the specific up-regulation of NOX-1, a non-phagocytic NADPH oxidase subunit and its reversal by anti-TGF-beta antibody strongly implicates for the first time the up-regulation of renal parenchymal cell NADPH oxidase in the aetiology of immunosuppression-induced nephrotoxicity.

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Available from: Ashwani Khanna, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "Several factors may contribute to the underlying mechanisms of nephrotoxicity, which include increased production of vasoconstriction factors, such as endothelin or thromboxane, and a decrease in vasodilation factors like prostacyclin, prostaglandin E2, and nitric oxide. TAC also has the ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) via activation of NADPH oxidase pathway and cause disturbance in antioxidant defense which may be responsible for nephrotoxicity [7]. It has been reported that treatment with TAC leads to impairment in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) which may mediate nephrotoxicity [8] [9] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, is clinically used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation, but its use is limited due to its marked nephrotoxicity. The present study investigated the effect of olmesartan (angiotensin receptor blocker) on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. A total of 24 rats were divided into four groups, which included control, tacrolimus, tacrolimus + olmesartan, and olmesartan groups. Tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity was assessed biochemically and histopathologically. Tacrolimus significantly increased BUN and creatinine level. Treatment with olmesartan reversed tacrolimus-induced changes in the biochemical markers (BUN and creatinine) of nephrotoxicity. Tacrolimus significantly decreased GSH level and catalase activity while increasing MDA level. Olmesartan also attenuated the effects of tacrolimus on MDA, GSH, and catalase. In tacrolimus group histological examination showed marked changes in renal tubule, mitochondria, and podocyte processes. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies showed that treatment with olmesartan prevented tacrolimus-induced renal damage. These results suggest that olmesartan has protective effects on tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity, implying that RAS might be playing role in tacrolimus-induced nephrotoxicity.
    BioMed Research International 05/2014; 2014:607246. DOI:10.1155/2014/607246 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    • "For instance, different members of the NADPH oxidase family have been recently related to TGF-β-induced signaling in different models. Effects in differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts [46], proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth cells [47] and nephrotoxicity [48] are controlled by a TGF-β-NADPH oxidase-dependent pathway. "
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induces apoptosis in hepatocytes, through a mechanism mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Numerous tumoral cells develop mechanisms to escape from the TGF-beta-induced tumor suppressor effects. In this work we show that in FaO rat hepatoma cells inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with the tyrphostin AG1478 enhances TGF-beta-induced cell death, coincident with an elevated increase in ROS production and GSH depletion. These events correlate with down-regulation of genes involved in the maintenance of redox homeostasis, such as gamma-GCS and MnSOD, and elevated mitochondrial ROS. Nonetheless, not all the ROS proceed from the mitochondria. Emerging evidences indicate that ROS production by TGF-beta is also mediated by the NADPH oxidase (NOX) system. TGF-beta-treated FaO cells induce nox1 expression. However, the treatment with TGF-beta and AG1478 greatly enhanced the expression of another family member: nox4. NOX1 and NOX4 targeted knock-down by siRNA experiments suggest that they play opposite roles, because NOX1 knockdown increases caspase-3 activity and cell death, whilst NOX4 knock-down attenuates the apoptotic process. This attenuation correlates with maintenance of GSH and antioxidant enzymes levels. In summary, EGFR inhibition enhances apoptosis induced by TGF-beta in FaO rat hepatoma cells through an increased oxidative stress coincident with a change in the expression pattern of NOX enzymes.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 10/2008; 1793(2):253-63. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2008.09.003 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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