Cerebrovascular disease basis of depression: post-stroke depression and vascular depression.
ABSTRACT The close association between cerebrovascular disease and depression has been known for more than a century, yet much of the progress in understanding the cerebrovascular basis of depression in late life has been spurred by development of two concepts: 'post-stroke depression' and 'vascular depression'. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology, diagnostic features, course, pathophysiology and prognosis of post-stroke depression and vascular depression, to highlight their common features, and to contrast the distinct aspects of these two subtypes of geriatric depression.
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ABSTRACT: This study was designed to test the extent to which depressive symptoms are associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and each of its components, and whether these relationships are gender dependent. Participants were apparently healthy employed men (N=2,355) and women (N=1,525) who underwent a routine health check between the years 2003 and 2005. We used logistic regression analysis, predicting the MS by depressive symptoms, as assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the following control variables: age, education, smoking status, physical exercise, anxiety, and burnout. As hypothesized, we found that depression among women, but not men, was associated with a 1.94-fold risk of having the MS, and with an elevated risk of having two of its five components: elevated waist circumference (odds ratio, OR=2.23) and elevated glucose levels (OR=2.44). In addition, a positive trend was observed toward an association with the other three components: low high-density lipoprotein, hypertension, and elevated triglycerides. Among men depression was associated with elevated waist circumference only (OR=1.77). These findings suggest that especially among women, the association between depression and cardiovascular diseases might be linked to metabolic processes. If replicated in longitudinal studies, these findings may have important health-care policy implications with regard to depression management interventions.Depression and Anxiety 08/2008; 25(8):661-9. DOI:10.1002/da.20379 · 4.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Poststroke depression (PSD) is a complication that occurs in up to 30% of the patients who have had a stroke. Its development is associated with a poor functional prognosis and a negative impact on the patient's quality of life. In the present review, we summarize the diagnostic criteria, prevalence, predisposing factors, the lesion site, the impact of PSD on the clinical evolution of the patient, the current therapeutic approaches and even the relationship between depression and cerebrovascular disease. There are differences in relation to prevalence, essentially due to the use of different diagnostic criteria. Also, there have been few studies focusing on the search for factors that are predictive of PSD (age, female sex, single vascular lesion independent of site) and the reluctance to initiate preventive treatments to minimize the effects on the clinical evolution of the patients. There have been several advances with respect to the treatment of PSD. It seems that treatments show improvement trends, but today there is not enough evidence to recommend a preventive therapy for depression in any stroke patient. We consider that the prevalence of PSD is relevant and that the risk factors as well as the early diagnosis are important for the best management and prognosis of stroke patients. Further studies are needed in this field in order to reduce PSD.Cerebrovascular Diseases 02/2007; 24 Suppl 1:181-8. DOI:10.1159/000107394 · 3.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study compared patterns of poststroke depression (PSD) detection among veterans with acute stroke in eight U.S. geographic regions. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical and pharmacy data as well as Medicare data were used. International Classification of Diseases-9th Revision depression codes and antidepressant medication dispensing were applied to define patients' PSD status 12 months poststroke. Logistic regression models were fit to compare VA PSD diagnosis and overall PSD detection between the regions. The use of VA medical data alone may underestimate the rate of PSD. Geographic variation in PSD detection depended on the data used. If VA medical data alone were used, we found no significant variation. If VA medical data were used along with Medicare and VA pharmacy data, we observed a significant variation in overall PSD detection across the regions after adjusting for potential risk factors. VA clinicians and policy makers need to consider enrollees' use of services outside the system when conducting program evaluation. Future research on PSD among veteran patients should use VA medical data in combination with Medicare and VA pharmacy data to obtain a comprehensive understanding of patients' PSD.The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 02/2008; 45(7):1027-35. DOI:10.1682/JRRD.2007.06.0090 · 1.69 Impact Factor