Excessive alcohol consumption can result in multiple organ injury, of which alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most common. With economic development and improvement of living standards, the incidence of diseases caused by alcohol abuse has been increasing in China, although its pathogenesis remains obscure. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hypoxia in chronic ALD.
Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a control group (n=12) with a normal history and an experimental group (n=16) fed with 10 ml/kg of 56% (vol/vol) ethanol once per day by gastric lavage for 24 weeks. At 24 weeks, blood samples were collected and then the rats were killed. Liver samples were frozen at -80 degrees C and used for RT-PCR; other liver samples were obtained for immunohistochemical staining.
When the period of alcohol consumption increased, the positive rate of expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) mRNA was more significantly elevated in the liver of the alcohol group than in the control group (P < or = 0.05). The HIF-1alpha protein located in the cytoplasm was seldom expressed in the control group, but significantly in the alcohol group (P < or = 0.01).
HIF-1alpha mRNA expression was activated by ethanol-induced injury in this study, suggesting that hypoxia is involved in the underlying mechanism of ALD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol abuse is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple organ disorders; the underlying mechanism is incompletely understood. The ubiquitin editing enzyme A20 is involved in regulating activities in the cell. Suppression of A20 is suggested as one factor in the initiation of inflammation. This study investigates the mechanism by which chronic alcohol consumption modulates the levels of ubiquitin editing enzyme A20 in macrophages and further contributes to induce endothelial barrier dysfunction in the lung.
Mice were gavage-fed with 40% alcohol daily for 0-3 weeks. Airway macrophages were collected by lung lavage. Expression of ubiquitin editing enzyme A20 in isolated macrophages was assessed at both mRNA and protein levels. The endothelial barrier function of the lung was evaluated by the Evans blue method.
Mice treated with alcohol for 3 weeks showed an increase in cell infiltration in the lung in response to exposure to peptidoglycan; over 80% of the infiltrated cells were macrophages. Furthermore, we observed that A20 level was suppressed in macrophages of mice treated with alcohol; the levels of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6 and nuclear factor kappa B in macrophage were increased. In addition, the endothelial barrier function of the lung was compromised, showing excessive infiltration of Evans blue in the lung indicating lung edema. Pretreatment with synthesized A20 inhibited alcohol-induced lung endothelial barrier dysfunction.
We conclude that chronic alcohol ingestion disturbs the endothelial barrier function in the lung by modulating macrophage properties. Increase in A20 in the cell may have potential for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) has been found to be significantly associated with the tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, clinical stage, and prognosis of a variety of human cancers.
This study examined the expression of HIF-1 alpha in 57 specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), 41 specimens of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED, 12 mild, 17 moderate, and 12 severe OED cases), and 14 specimens of normal oral mucosa (NOM) by immunohistochemistry.
We found that the mean nuclear HIF-1 alpha labeling indices (LIs) increased significantly from NOM (9 +/- 6%) through mild OED (25 +/- 18%), moderate OED (41 +/- 27%), and severe OED (42 +/- 22%) to OSCC samples (55 +/- 23%, P < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between the higher mean nuclear HIF-1 alpha LI and OSCCs with larger tumor size (P < 0.001), regional lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), or more advanced clinical stages (P < 0.001). Only larger tumor size (P = 0.002) and nuclear HIF-1 alpha LI >or= 60% (P = 0.048) were identified as independent unfavorable prognosis factor by multivariate analyses with Cox regression model. Kaplan-Meier curve showed that OSCC patients with a nuclear HIF-1 alpha LI >or= 60% had a significantly poorer cumulative survival than those with a nuclear HIF-1 alpha LI < 60% (log-rank test, P = 0.022).
We conclude that the expression of HIF-1 alpha is an early event in oral carcinogenesis. The nuclear HIF-1 alpha LI in OSCC samples can predict the progression of OSCCs and the survival of OSCC patients.
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 02/2008; 37(1):18-25. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0714.2007.00571.x · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme families CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 are responsible for the metabolism of approximately 75% of all clinically relevant drugs. With the increased prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), it is likely that patients with this disease represent an emerging population at significant risk for alterations in these important drug-metabolizing enzymes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether three progressive stages of human NALFD alter hepatic P450 expression and activity. Microsomes isolated from human liver samples diagnosed as normal, n = 20; steatosis, n = 11; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (fatty liver), n = 10; and NASH (no longer fatty), n = 11 were analyzed for P450 mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity. Microsomal CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 mRNA levels were decreased with NAFLD progression, whereas CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP2C9 mRNA expression increased. Microsomal protein expression of CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 tended to decrease with NAFLD progression. Likewise, functional activity assays revealed decreasing trends in CYP1A2 (p = 0.001) and CYP2C19 (p = 0.05) enzymatic activity with increasing NAFLD severity. In contrast, activity of CYP2A6 (p = 0.001) and CYP2C9 (diclofenac, p = 0.0001; tolbutamide, p = 0.004) was significantly increased with NAFLD progression. Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta was observed and may be responsible for observed decreases in respective P450 activity. Furthermore, elevated CYP2C9 activity during NAFLD progression correlated with elevated hypoxia-induced factor 1alpha expression in the later stages of NAFLD. These results suggest that significant and novel changes occur in hepatic P450 activity during progressive stages of NAFLD.
Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 09/2009; 37(10):2087-94. DOI:10.1124/dmd.109.027466 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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