Is the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha mRNA expression activated by ethanol-induced injury, the mechanism underlying alcoholic liver disease?
ABSTRACT Excessive alcohol consumption can result in multiple organ injury, of which alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most common. With economic development and improvement of living standards, the incidence of diseases caused by alcohol abuse has been increasing in China, although its pathogenesis remains obscure. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hypoxia in chronic ALD.
Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a control group (n=12) with a normal history and an experimental group (n=16) fed with 10 ml/kg of 56% (vol/vol) ethanol once per day by gastric lavage for 24 weeks. At 24 weeks, blood samples were collected and then the rats were killed. Liver samples were frozen at -80 degrees C and used for RT-PCR; other liver samples were obtained for immunohistochemical staining.
When the period of alcohol consumption increased, the positive rate of expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) mRNA was more significantly elevated in the liver of the alcohol group than in the control group (P < or = 0.05). The HIF-1alpha protein located in the cytoplasm was seldom expressed in the control group, but significantly in the alcohol group (P < or = 0.01).
HIF-1alpha mRNA expression was activated by ethanol-induced injury in this study, suggesting that hypoxia is involved in the underlying mechanism of ALD.
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ABSTRACT: Alcohol abuse is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple organ disorders; the underlying mechanism is incompletely understood. The ubiquitin editing enzyme A20 is involved in regulating activities in the cell. Suppression of A20 is suggested as one factor in the initiation of inflammation. This study investigates the mechanism by which chronic alcohol consumption modulates the levels of ubiquitin editing enzyme A20 in macrophages and further contributes to induce endothelial barrier dysfunction in the lung. Mice were gavage-fed with 40% alcohol daily for 0-3 weeks. Airway macrophages were collected by lung lavage. Expression of ubiquitin editing enzyme A20 in isolated macrophages was assessed at both mRNA and protein levels. The endothelial barrier function of the lung was evaluated by the Evans blue method. Mice treated with alcohol for 3 weeks showed an increase in cell infiltration in the lung in response to exposure to peptidoglycan; over 80% of the infiltrated cells were macrophages. Furthermore, we observed that A20 level was suppressed in macrophages of mice treated with alcohol; the levels of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6 and nuclear factor kappa B in macrophage were increased. In addition, the endothelial barrier function of the lung was compromised, showing excessive infiltration of Evans blue in the lung indicating lung edema. Pretreatment with synthesized A20 inhibited alcohol-induced lung endothelial barrier dysfunction. We conclude that chronic alcohol ingestion disturbs the endothelial barrier function in the lung by modulating macrophage properties. Increase in A20 in the cell may have potential for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.12/2011; 6(6):364-70. DOI:10.1186/2049-6958-6-6-364
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia has been shown to have a role in the pathogenesis of several forms of liver disease. The hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcriptional regulators that affect a homeostatic response to low oxygen tension and have been identified as key mediators of angiogenesis, inflammation, and metabolism. In this review we summarize the evidence for a role of HIFs across a range of hepatic pathophysiology. We describe regulation of the HIFs and review investigations that demonstrate a role for HIFs in the development of liver fibrosis, activation of innate immune pathways, hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as other liver diseases in both human disease as well as murine models.Hepatology 02/2012; 55(2):622-33. DOI:10.1002/hep.25497 · 11.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic alcohol-induced liver disease results in inflammation, steatosis, and increased oxidative and nitrosative damage to the mitochondrion. We hypothesized that targeting an antioxidant to the mitochondria would prevent oxidative damage and attenuate the steatosis associated with alcoholic liver disease. To test this we investigated the effects of mitochondria-targeted ubiquinone (MitoQ) (5 and 25 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) in male Sprague-Dawley rats consuming ethanol using the Lieber-DeCarli diet with pair-fed controls. Hepatic steatosis, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), hypoxia inducible factor α (HIF1α), and the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes were assessed. As reported previously, ethanol consumption resulted in hepatocyte ballooning, increased lipid accumulation in the form of micro and macrovesicular steatosis, and induction of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). MitoQ had a minor effect on the ethanol-dependent decrease in mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins and their activities; however, it did decrease hepatic steatosis in ethanol-consuming animals and prevented the ethanol-induced formation of 3-NT and 4-HNE. Interestingly, MitoQ completely blocked the increase in HIF1α in all ethanol-fed groups, which has previously been demonstrated in cell culture models and shown to be essential in ethanol-dependent hepatosteatosis. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the antioxidant capacity of MitoQ in alleviating alcohol-associated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and several downstream effects of ROS/RNS (reactive nitrogen species) production such as inhibiting protein nitration and protein aldehyde formation and specifically ROS-dependent HIF1α stabilization.Hepatology 07/2011; 54(1):153-63. DOI:10.1002/hep.24377 · 11.19 Impact Factor