Signalling via integrins: implications for cell survival and anticancer strategies.
ABSTRACT Integrin-associated signalling renders cells more resistant to genotoxic anti-cancer agents like ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic substances, a phenomenon termed cell adhesion-mediated radioresistance/drug resistance (CAM-RR, CAM-DR). Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface molecules that on one side link the actin cytoskeleton to the cell membrane and on the other side mediate cell-matrix interactions. In addition to their structural functions, integrins mediate signalling from the extracellular space into the cell through integrin-associated signalling and adaptor molecules such as FAK (focal adhesion kinase), ILK (integrin-linked kinase), PINCH (particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine rich protein) and Nck2 (non-catalytic (region of) tyrosine kinase adaptor protein 2). Via these molecules, integrin signalling tightly and cooperatively interacts with receptor tyrosine kinase signalling to regulate survival, proliferation and cell shape as well as polarity, adhesion, migration and differentiation. In tumour cells of diverse origin like breast, colon or skin, the function and regulation of these molecules is partly disturbed and thus might contribute to the malignant phenotype and pre-existent and acquired multidrug resistance. These issues as well as a variety of therapeutic options envisioned to influence tumour cell growth, metastasis and resistance, including kinase inhibitors, anti-integrin antibodies or RNA interference, will be summarized and discussed in this review.
Article: Focal adhesion-chromatin linkage controls tumor cell resistance to radio- and chemotherapy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cancer resistance to therapy presents an ongoing and unsolved obstacle, which has clear impact on patient's survival. In order to address this problem, novel in vitro models have been established and are currently developed that enable data generation in a more physiological context. For example, extracellular-matrix- (ECM-) based scaffolds lead to the identification of integrins and integrin-associated signaling molecules as key promoters of cancer cell resistance to radio- and chemotherapy as well as modern molecular agents. In this paper, we discuss the dynamic nature of the interplay between ECM, integrins, cytoskeleton, nuclear matrix, and chromatin organization and how this affects the response of tumor cells to various kinds of cytotoxic anticancer agents.Chemotherapy research and practice. 01/2012; 2012:319287.
Article: Latent KSHV infection of endothelial cells induces integrin beta3 to activate angiogenic phenotypes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS), the most common tumor of AIDS patients, is a highly vascularized tumor supporting large amounts of angiogenesis. The main cell type of KS tumors is the spindle cell, a cell of endothelial origin, the primary cell type involved in angiogenesis. Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of KS and is likely involved in both tumor formation and the induction of angiogenesis. Integrins, and specifically integrin αVβ3, have known roles in both tumor induction and angiogenesis. αVβ3 is also important for KSHV infection as it has been shown to be involved in KSHV entry into cells. We found that during latent infection of endothelial cells KSHV induces the expression of integrin β3 leading to increased surface levels of αVβ3. Signaling molecules downstream of integrins, including FAK and Src, are activated during viral latency. Integrin activation by KSHV is necessary for the KSHV-associated upregulation of a number of angiogenic phenotypes during latent infection including adhesion and motility. Additionally, KSHV-infected cells become more reliant on αVβ3 for capillary like formation in three dimensional culture. KSHV induction of integrin β3, leading to induction of angiogenic and cancer cell phenotypes during latency, is likely to be important for KS tumor formation and potentially provides a novel target for treating KS tumors.PLoS Pathogens 12/2011; 7(12):e1002424. · 9.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Resistance to apoptosis and chemotherapy is a hallmark of cancer cells, and it is a critical factor in cancer recurrence and patient relapse. Extracellular matrix (ECM) via its receptors, the integrins, has emerged as a major pathway contributing to cancer cell survival and resistance to chemotherapy. Several studies over the last decade have demonstrated that ECM/integrin signaling provides a survival advantage to various cancer cell types against numerous chemotherapeutic drugs and against antibody therapy. In this paper, we will discuss the major findings on how ECM/integrin signaling protects tumor cells from drug-induced apoptosis. We will also discuss the potential role of ECM in malignant T-cell survival and in cancer stem cell resistance. Understanding how integrins and their signaling partners promote tumor cell survival and chemoresistance will likely lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies and agents for cancer treatment.Chemotherapy research and practice. 01/2012; 2012:283181.