The 80-hour resident workweek does not adversely affect patient outcomes or resident education.
ABSTRACT To determine whether the 80-hour resident workweek adversely affects patient outcomes or resident education.
To assess patient outcomes, the authors reviewed trauma patient morbidity and mortality at the second busiest level I trauma center in Los Angeles County before (July 1998-June 2003, Period 1) and after (July 2003-June 2005, Period 2) implementation of the duty hour limitation via a retrospective review of a prospective database. All patients were operated and managed by residents under faculty supervision. Patient characteristics included the injury severity score (ISS), mechanism of injury, complications, and death. To assess resident education, the authors compared ABSITE percentile scores, first-time pass rates on the American Board of Surgery Qualifying and Certifying Examinations, and total and chief resident operative case volumes. In addition, they estimated institutional costs incurred to comply with the new duty hour rules.
Patient outcomes. Over the entire 7-year study period, 11,518 trauma patients were transported to Harbor-UCLA Medical Center. Compared with Period 1, Period 2 experienced an increase in average yearly patient volume from 1510 to 1981 (p 0.01). The average ISS also increased, from 7.9 to 9.6 (p < 0.0001), as did the proportion of penetrating trauma from 14.8% to 17.6% (p < 0.0001). Morbidity and mortality rates remained unchanged. Resident education. Mean ABSITE scores and first-time Qualifying and Certifying Exam pass rates were unchanged. Mean resident total major case volumes increased significantly in Period 2 from 831 to 1156 (p < 0.0001), whereas chief resident year case volumes were unchanged. The estimated cost incurred by this institution to conform to the new work hour standards was approximately 359,000 dollars per year.
Despite concerns that the 80-hour workweek might threaten patient care and resident education, the morbidity and mortality rates at a busy level I trauma center remained unchanged. The quality of surgical resident education, as measured by operative volumes, ABSITE scores, and written and oral board examination pass rates were likewise unchanged. The reorganization of the authors' general surgery residency program to comply with the duty hour restrictions was achieved within reasonable cost.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives The reported influence of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education resident duty hour limitations on operative case volume has been mixed. Additional restrictions instituted in July 2011 further limited the work hours of postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) residents, threatening to reduce availability for educational and operative activities. In this study, we evaluate our novel intern call schedule, which we hypothesized would preserve operative experience despite these increased restrictions. Design A retrospective analysis of PGY-1 operative reports was conducted. Operations outside of major case categories were excluded. Operative case volumes in the Section of General Surgery for the same period were analyzed, as were average duty hours for each resident. Comparative statistics were generated using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Setting Single-institution study conducted at the University of Michigan, a tertiary-care academic hospital. Participants Overall, 50 categorical general surgery residents from 2005 to present were included. Three residents were subsequently excluded as they were preliminary interns rather than categorical; 2 residents were excluded having completed their intern years at other institutions. Results The median number of major cases done during the PGY-1 for all evaluated residents was 89 (interquartile range [IQR]: 72-101). For interns between the years 2005 and 2011, the median number of major cases was 87 (IQR: 73-101), whereas interns in the 2011 to 2013 academic years performed 91.5 (IQR: 69.5-101.5, p = 0.91). Although case volume varied between intern classes, no significant differences were observed between any 2 individual classes in the study. Analysis of annual case volumes among each PGY revealed a relative increase of 29% (p < 0.001) among PGY-2 residents, and 20% (p = 0.02) by PGY-3 residents. Relative increases among senior residents (8% for both PGY-4 and PGY-5) did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Our novel call schedule attempts to minimize prolonged night-float coverage responsibilities for interns in hopes of preserving their operative experience. In spite of increased duty hour restrictions, PGY-1 operative volume has not decreased significantly at our institution. However, in the same time period, PGY-2 and PGY-3 case volume has increased. Our findings highlight the challenges faced by surgical residencies in light of these new restrictions, particularly the 16-hour limit. Additional rigorously designed prospective studies should be conducted to better understand the influence of the most recent Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work hour limitations on the subjective and objective experiences of surgical residents.Journal of Surgical Education 07/2014; · 1.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In 2003, duty-hour regulations (DHR) were initially implemented for residents in the United States to improve patient safety and protect resident's well-being. The effect of DHR on patient safety remains unclear. The study objective was to evaluate the effect of DHR on patient safety. Using an interrupted time series analysis, we analyzed selected patient safety indicators (PSIs) for 376 million discharges in teaching (T) vs nonteaching (NT) hospitals before and after implementation of DHR in 2003 that restricted resident work hours to 80 hours per week. The PSIs evaluated were postoperative pulmonary embolus or deep venous thrombosis (PEDVT), iatrogenic pneumothorax (PTx), accidental puncture or laceration, postoperative wound dehiscence (WD), postoperative hemorrhage or hematoma, and postoperative physiologic or metabolic derangement. Propensity scores were used to adjust for differences in patient comorbidities between T and NT hospitals and between discharge quarters. The primary outcomes were differences in the PSI rates before and after DHR implementation. The PSI differences between T and NT institutions were the secondary outcome. T and NT hospitals in the United States. Participants were 376 million patient discharges from 1998 to 2007 in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Declining rates of PTx in both T and NT hospitals preintervention slowed only in T hospitals postintervention (p = 0.04). Increasing PEDVT rates in both T and NT hospitals increased further only in NT hospitals (p = 0.01). There were no differences in the PSI rates over time for hemorrhage or hematoma, physiologic or metabolic derangement, accidental puncture or laceration, or WD. T hospitals had higher rates than NT hospitals both preintervention and postintervention for all the PSIs except WD. Trends in rates for 2 of the 6 PSIs changed significantly after DHR implementation, with PTx rates worsening in T hospitals and PEDVT rates worsening in NT hospitals. Lack of consistent patterns of change suggests no measurable effect of the policy change on these PSIs.Journal of Surgical Education 04/2014; · 1.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: General surgery has become increasingly fragmented into subspecialties and diseases previously treated by general surgeons are now managed by "specialists". The Resident Education Committee of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract (SSAT) has reviewed the history of surgical training and factors that have contributed to this evolution to subsepcialization. As it is unlikely that this paradigm shift is reversible, a clear understanding of the contributing factors is essential. Herein, we present a timeline and taxonomy of forces in this evolution to subspecialization.Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 04/2014; · 2.36 Impact Factor