Medicine - Grapes versus gluttony

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States
Nature (Impact Factor: 41.46). 12/2006; 444(7117):280-1. DOI: 10.1038/nature05308
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A compound found in red grapes called resveratrol improves the health and lifespan of mice on a high-calorie diet. This is potentially good news for overweight humans. Does it bode well for the rest of us too?

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Available from: Matt Kaeberlein, Sep 26, 2015
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    • ", has realized the absence of any effective therapy for mitochondrial diseases, but it also mentioned several interesting reports. They were the reports about coenzyme Q10, creatine, dichloroacetic acid (DCA), and dimethylglycine as the therapeutic materials but the results were controversial [7] [8]. However, some clinical trials, such as coenzyme Q10 for mitochondrial diseases, DCA for MELAS, and idebenone for Leber hereditary optic neuropathy are still on going. "
    Journal of Cardiology Cases 08/2012; 6(2):e64–e65. DOI:10.1016/j.jccase.2012.05.004
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    • "In addition, ROS formation may have adverse consequences that contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and induce IR [5]. Because RES is well known for its antioxidant properties [12], we postulate that it protects the mitochondria by targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain and antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving insulin sensitivity in the CUG model. "
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    ABSTRACT: Caloric restriction followed by refeeding, a phenomenon known as catch-up growth (CUG), affects mitochondrial function and results in systemic insulin resistance (IR). We investigated the potential of resveratrol (RES) in CUG to prevent IR by increasing activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and antioxidant enzymes in skeletal muscle. Rats (8 weeks of age) were divided into 3 groups: normal chow, CUG, and CUG with RES intervention. Skeletal muscle and systemic IR were measured in each group after 4 and 8 weeks. Mitochondrial biogenesis and function, oxidative stress levels, and antioxidant enzyme activity in skeletal muscle were assessed. Catch-up growth-induced IR resulted in significant reductions in both average glucose infusion rate(60-120) at euglycemia and skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Mitochondrial citrate synthase activity was lower; and the activity of complexes I to IV in the intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal (SS) mitochondria were reduced by 20% to 40%, with the decrease being more pronounced in the SS fraction. Reactive oxygen species levels were significantly higher in intermyofibrillar and SS mitochondria, whereas activities of antioxidant enzymes were decreased. Oral administration of RES, however, increased silent information regulator 1 activity and improved mitochondrial number and insulin sensitivity. Resveratrol treatment decreased levels of reactive oxygen species and restored activities of antioxidant enzymes. This study demonstrates that RES protects insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle by improving activities of mitochondrial complexes and antioxidant defense status in CUG rats. Thus, RES has therapeutic potential for preventing CUG-related metabolic disorders.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 12/2011; 61(7):954-65. DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2011.11.005 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition, effects described in mice subjected to a highcalorie diet (Baur et al. 2006) point to new approaches for treating not only age-related diseases but also obesityrelated disorders (Kaeberlein and Rabinovitch 2006). That is why new strategies based on the use of V. vinifera cell cultures have been used to increase t-R production (Donnez et al. 2009; Kiselev 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, the effect of different inducing factors on trans-resveratrol extracellular production in Monastrell grapevine suspension cultured cells is evaluated. A detailed analysis provides the optimal concentrations of cyclodextrins, methyljasmonate and UV irradiation dosage, optimal cell density, elicitation time and sucrose content in the culture media. The results indicate that trans-resveratrol production decreases as the initial cell density increases for a constant elicitor concentration in Monastrell suspension cultured cells treated with cyclodextrins individually or in combination with methyljasmonate; the decrease observed in cell cultures elicited with cyclodextrins alone is far more drastic than those observed in the combined treatment. trans-Resveratrol extracellular production observed by the joint use of cyclodextrins and methyljasmonate (1,447.8 ± 60.4 μmol trans-resveratrol g(-1) dry weight) is lower when these chemical compounds are combined with UV light short exposure (669.9 ± 45.2 μmol trans-resveratrol g(-1) dry weight). Likewise, trans-resveratrol production is dependent on levels of sucrose in the elicitation medium with the maximal levels observed with 20 g l(-1) sucrose and the joint action of cyclodextrins and 100 μM methyljasmonate. The sucrose concentration did not seem to limit the process although it affects significantly the specific productivity since the lowest sucrose concentration is 10 g l(-1), the highest productivity is reached (100.7 ± 5.8 μmol trans-resveratrol g(-1) dry weight g(-1) sucrose) using cyclodextrins and 25 μM methyljasmonate.
    Plant Cell Reports 09/2011; 31(1):81-9. DOI:10.1007/s00299-011-1141-8 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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