Sleep and the metabolic syndrome.

Cardiovascular/Metabolic Diseases, Pfizer Global Research & Development, Eastern Point Road, MS 8260-2506, Groton, CT 06340, USA.
Experimental Physiology (Impact Factor: 2.87). 02/2007; 92(1):67-78. DOI: 10.1113/expphysiol.2006.033787
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The metabolic syndrome represents a clustering of several interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin that are thought to increase cardiovascular risk. It is still uncertain whether this clustering results from multiple underlying risk factors or whether it has a single cause. One metabolic abnormality that may underlie several clinical characteristics of the metabolic syndrome is insulin resistance. This review discusses the evidence that sleep disturbances (obstructive sleep apnoea, sleep deprivation and shift work) may independently lead to the development of both insulin resistance and individual clinical components of the metabolic syndrome. The converse may also be true, in that metabolic abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance may potentially exacerbate sleep disorders. The notion that sleep disturbances exert detrimental metabolic effects may help explain the increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the general population and may have important implications for population-based approaches to combat the increasing epidemic of metabolic and cardiovascular disease.

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    ABSTRACT: Sleepiness, the biological drive to sleep, is an important construct for the organizational sciences. This physiological phenomenon has received very little attention in the organizational science literature in spite of the fact that it influences a wide variety of workplace behaviors. In this article, we develop a framework through which sleepiness can be fruitfully studied. We describe (a) what sleepiness is and how it can be differentiated conceptually from related concepts such as fatigue, (b) the physiological basis of sleepiness, (c) cognitive and affective mechanisms that transmit the effects of sleepiness, and (d) the behavioral manifestations of sleepiness in the workplace. We also describe (e) job demand characteristics that are antecedents of sleepiness and (f) individual differences that moderate the aforementioned relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Applied Psychology 11/2014; 99(6):1096-112. DOI:10.1037/a0037885 · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Working outside daylight hours (7 am to 7 pm) is called shift work. Shift work is a common practice in many industries and factories such as steel industries, petroleum industries, power plants, and in some services such as medicine and nursing and police forces, in which professionals provide services during day and night. Considering the contradictory reports of different studies, we decided to evaluate the effect of shift work on cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels through a historical cohort on steel industry workers. This retrospective cohort study was performed on all the staff of Isfahan's Mobarakeh Steel Company between years 2002 and 2011. There were 5773 participants in this study. Data were collected from the medical records of the staff using the census method. For analysis of data, generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used. The results showed a significant difference in cholesterol levels between shift workers and day workers on the first observation (P < 0.001), yet no such difference was observed for TG (P = 0.853). Moreover, the results showed that the variables of age, work experience and BMI were not similar between shift workers and day workers. Therefore, to remove the effect of such variables, we used GEE regression. Despite the borderline difference of cholesterol between regular shift workers and day workers, this correlation was not statistically significant (P = 0.051). The results for TG also showed no correlation with shift work. According to the findings of this study, there is no relationship between shift work and changes in serum TG and cholesterol. The lack of relationship can be due to shift plans for shift workers, nutrition, or the "Healthy Heart project" at Isfahan Mobarakeh Steel Company.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Employees working night shifts are at a greater risk of being overweight or obese. Few studies on obesity and weight gain analyze the years of exposure to night work. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the years of exposure to night work and body mass index (BMI) among registered nurses.MethodsA cross-sectional analysis was performed in 18 largest public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 2,372 registered nurses (2,100 women) completed a comprehensive questionnaire concerning sociodemographic, professional, lifestyle, and health behavioral data. Current and past exposures to night shifts as well as BMI values were measured as continuous variables. A gamma regression model was used with an identity link function to establish the association.ResultsThe association between years of exposure to night work and BMI was statistically significant for both women and men after adjusting for all covariates [ß =0.036; CI95%¿=¿0.009¿0.063) and ß =0.071 (CI95%¿=¿0.012¿0.129), respectively]. The effect of night work was greater among men than women. For example, for those women who have worked at night for 20 years the estimated average BMI was 25.6 kg/m2 [range, 25.0¿26.2]. In relation to men, after 20 years of exposure to night work the estimated average BMI was 26.9 kg/m2 [range, 25.6¿28.1].Conclusions These findings suggest that night shift exposure is related to BMI increases. Obesity prevention strategies should incorporate improvements in work environments, such as the provision of proper meals to night workers, in addition to educational programs on the health effects of night work.
    BMC Health Services Research 11/2014; 14(1):603. DOI:10.1186/s12913-014-0603-4 · 1.66 Impact Factor


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