Schedule-dependent synergy between the heat shock protein 90 inhibitor 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and doxorubicin restores apoptosis to p53-mutant lymphoma cell lines
ABSTRACT Loss of p53 function impairs apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents used for cancer therapy. Here, we examined the effect of the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (DMAG) on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in lymphoma. We aimed to establish the optimal schedule for administration of both drugs in combination and the molecular basis for their interaction.
Isogenic lymphoblastoid and nonisogenic lymphoma cell lines differing in p53 status were exposed to each drug or combination. Drug effects were examined using Annexin V, active caspase-3, cell cycle, and cytotoxicity assays. Synergy was evaluated by median effect/combination index. Protein expression and kinase inhibition provided insight into the molecular mechanisms of drug interaction.
Presence of mutant p53 conferred increased survival to single agents. Nevertheless, DMAG showed synergistic toxicity with doxorubicin independently of p53 status. Synergy required exposure to doxorubicin before DMAG. DMAG-mediated down-regulation of CHK1, a known HSP90 client, forced doxorubicin-treated cells into premature mitosis followed by apoptosis. A CHK1 inhibitor, SB-218078, reproduced the effect of DMAG. Administration of DMAG before doxorubicin resulted in G1-S arrest and protection from apoptosis, leading to additive or antagonistic interactions that were exacerbated by p53 mutation.
Administration of DMAG to doxorubicin-primed cells induced premature mitosis and had a synergistic effect on apoptosis regardless of p53 status. These observations provide a rationale for prospective clinical trials and stress the need to consider schedule of exposure as a critical determinant of the overall response when DMAG is combined with chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory disease.
SourceAvailable from: Kang-Seo Park[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) at advanced stage is considered an incurable disease. Despite good response to initial chemotherapy, the responses in SCLC patients with metastatic disease are of short duration and resistance inevitably occurs. Although several target-specific drugs have altered the paradigm of treatment for many other cancers, we have yet to witness a revolution of the same magnitude in SCLC treatment. Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin, have definite activity in this disease, and ganetespib has shown promising activity in preclinical models but underwhelming activity as a single agent in SCLC patients. Using SCLC cell lines, we demonstrated that ganetespib (IC50: 31 nM) was much more potent than 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a geldanamycin derivative (IC50: 16 μM). Ganetespib inhibited SCLC cell growth via induction of persistent G2/M arrest and Caspase 3-dependent cell death. MTS assay revealed that ganetespib synergized with both doxorubicin and etoposide, two topoisomerase II inhibitors commonly used in SCLC chemotherapy. Expression of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIP1), a protein that may function as a pro-survival scaffold protein or a pro-death kinase in TNFR1-activated cells, was induced by doxorubicin and downregulated by ganetespib. Depletion of RIP1 by either RIP1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or ganetespib sensitized doxorubicin-induced cell death, suggesting that RIP1 may promote survival in doxorubicin-treated cells and that ganetespib may synergize with doxorubicin in part through the downregulation of RIP1. In comparison to ganetespib or doxorubicin alone, the ganetespib+doxorubicin combination caused significantly more growth regression and death of human SCLC xenografts in immunocompromised mice. We conclude that ganetespib and doxorubicin combination exhibits significant synergy and is efficacious in inhibiting SCLC growth in vitro and in mouse xenograft models. Our preclinical study suggests that ganetespib and doxorubicin combination therapy may be an effective strategy for SCLC treatment, which warrants clinical testing.Oncogene advance online publication, 28 October 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.439.Oncogene 10/2013; DOI:10.1038/onc.2013.439 · 8.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present a systemic study of the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Nin nanowires (n=5, 9, 13) encapsulated in gallium nitride nanotubes (GaNNTs) using the first-principles calculations. We find that the initial shapes (quadratic–prismatic Ni nanowire and cylindrical (8,8) GaNNT) are preserved without any visible changes for the Ni5@(8,8) and Ni9@(8,8) systems, while for the Ni13@(8,8) system not only a quadraticlike cross-section shape is formed for nanotube but also an anticlockwise rotation about common axis is taken place for nanotube with respect to the nanowire. For both the free-standing Nin nanowires and Nin@(8,8) systems, the magnetic moment increases with decreasing the number n of the Ni atoms in per unit cell and increases as going from the core Ni atom to the outermost shell Ni atom for certain n. Both the total density of states (DOS) and charge density analyses show that the spin polarization and the magnetic moment of Nin@(8,8) systems come solely from the Ni nanowires. Not much decreasing in the spin polarization and the magnetic moment for the Nin@(8,8) systems with respect to the corresponding free-standing Nin nanowires imply the Nin@(8,8) systems can be applied to the circuits that demand preferential transport of electrons with a specific spin.Computational and Theoretical Chemistry 01/2011; 963(1):18-23. DOI:10.1016/j.comptc.2010.09.001 · 1.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone that maintains the structural and functional integrity of various client proteins involved in signaling and many other functions of cancer cells. The natural inhibitors, ansamycins influence the Hsp90 chaperone function by preventing its binding to client proteins and resulting in their proteasomal degradation. N- and C-terminal inhibitors of Hsp90 and their analogues are widely tested as potential anticancer agents in vitro, in vivo as well as in clinical trials. It seems that Hsp90 competitive inhibitors target different tumor types at nanomolar concentrations and might have therapeutic benefit. On the contrary, some Hsp90 inhibitors increased toxicity and resistance of cancer cells induced by heat shock response, and through the interaction of survival signals, that occured as side effects of treatments, could be very effectively limited via combination of therapies. The aim of our review was to collect the data from experimental and clinical trials where Hsp90 inhibitor was combined with other therapies in order to prevent resistance as well as to potentiate the cytotoxic and/or antiproliferative effects.International Journal of Oncology 12/2014; 46(3). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2014.2791 · 2.77 Impact Factor