Generalized P-values and confidence intervals: a novel approach for analyzing lognormally distributed exposure data.

Department of Mathematics, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana 70504, USA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene (Impact Factor: 1.28). 12/2006; 3(11):642-50. DOI: 10.1080/15459620600961196
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The problem of assessing occupational exposure using the mean of a lognormal distribution is addressed. The novel concepts of generalized p-values and generalized confidence intervals are applied for testing hypotheses and computing confidence intervals for a lognormal mean. The proposed methods perform well, they are applicable to small sample sizes, and they are easy to implement. Power studies and sample size calculation are also discussed. Computational details and a source for the computer program are given. The procedures are also extended to compare two lognormal means and to make inference about a lognormal variance. In fact, our approach based on generalized p-values and generalized confidence intervals is easily adapted to deal with any parametric function involving one or two lognormal distributions. Several examples involving industrial exposure data are used to illustrate the methods. An added advantage of the generalized variables approach is the ease of computation and implementation. In fact, the procedures can be easily coded in a programming language for implementation. Furthermore, extensive numerical computations by the authors show that the results based on the generalized p-value approach are essentially equivalent to those based on the Land's method. We want to draw the attention of the industrial hygiene community to this accurate and unified methodology to deal with any parameter associated with the lognormal distribution.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The symmetric-range accuracy of a sampler is defined as the fractional range, symmetric about the true concentration, that includes a specified proportion of sampler measurements. In this article, we give an explicit expression for assuming that the sampler measurements follow a one-way random model so as to capture different components of variability, for example, variabilities among and within different laboratories or variabilities among and within exposed workers. We derive an upper confidence limit for based on the concept of a 'generalized confidence interval'. A convenient approximation is also provided for computing the upper confidence limit. Both balanced and unbalanced data situations are investigated. Monte Carlo evaluation indicates that the proposed upper confidence limit is satisfactory even for small samples. The statistical procedures are illustrated using an example.
    Annals of Occupational Hygiene 03/2013; · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT The problem of comparing the means of two lognormal distributions based on samples with multiple detection limits is considered. Tests and confidence intervals for the ratio of the two means, based on pivotal quantities involving the maximum likelihood estimators, are proposed. The merits of the proposed approaches are evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation study indicates that the procedures are satisfactory in terms of coverage probabilities of confidence intervals, and powers of tests. The proposed approach can also be applied to find confidence intervals for the difference between the means of the two lognormal distributions. Illustrative examples with a real data set and with a simulated data set are given.
    Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 01/2014; · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The lognormal distribution is currently used extensively to describe the distribution of positive random variables. This is especially the case with data pertaining to occupational health and other biological data. One particular application of the data is statistical inference with regards to the mean of the data. Other authors, namely Zou et al. (2009), have proposed procedures involving the so-called “method of variance estimates recovery” (MOVER), while an alternative approach based on simulation is the so-called generalized confidence interval, discussed by Krishnamoorthy and Mathew (2003). In this paper we compare the performance of the MOVER-based confidence interval estimates and the generalized confidence interval procedure to coverage of credibility intervals obtained using Bayesian methodology using a variety of different prior distributions to estimate the appropriateness of each. An extensive simulation study is conducted to evaluate the coverage accuracy and interval width of the proposed methods. For the Bayesian approach both the equal-tail and highest posterior density (HPD) credibility intervals are presented. Various prior distributions (Independence Jeffreys' prior, Jeffreys'-Rule prior, namely, the square root of the determinant of the Fisher Information matrix, reference and probability-matching priors) are evaluated and compared to determine which give the best coverage with the most efficient interval width. The simulation studies show that the constructed Bayesian confidence intervals have satisfying coverage probabilities and in some cases outperform the MOVER and generalized confidence interval results. The Bayesian inference procedures (hypothesis tests and confidence intervals) are also extended to the difference between two lognormal means as well as to the case of zero-valued observations and confidence intervals for the lognormal variance. In the last section of this paper the bivariate lognormal distribution is discussed and Bayesian confidence intervals are obtained for the difference between two correlated lognormal means as well as for the ratio of lognormal variances, using nine different priors.
    Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference 06/2012; 142(6):1294–1309. · 0.71 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 27, 2014