Computed Tomographic Colonography: Assessment of Radiologist Performance With and Without Computer-Aided Detection
ABSTRACT In isolation, computer-aided detection (CAD) for computed tomographic (CT) colonography is as effective as optical colonoscopy for detection of significant adenomas. However, the unavoidable interaction between CAD and the reader has not been addressed.
Ten readers trained in CT but without special expertise in colonography interpreted CT colonography images of 107 patients (60 with 142 polyps), first without CAD and then with CAD after temporal separation of 2 months. Per-patient and per-polyp detection were determined by comparing responses with known patient status.
With CAD, 41 (68%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 55%-80%) of the 60 patients with polyps were identified more frequently by readers. Per-patient sensitivity increased significantly in 70% of readers, while specificity dropped significantly in only one. Polyp detection increased significantly with CAD; on average, 12 more polyps were detected by each reader (9.1%, 95% CI, 5.2%-12.8%). Small- (< or =5 mm) and medium-sized (6-9 mm) polyps were significantly more likely to be detected when prompted correctly by CAD. However, overall performance was relatively poor; even with CAD, on average readers detected only 10 polyps (51.0%) > or =10 mm and 24 (38.2%) > or =6 mm. Interpretation time was shortened significantly with CAD: by 1.9 minutes (95% CI, 1.4-2.4 minutes) for patients with polyps and by 2.9 minutes (95% CI, 2.5-3.3 minutes) for patients without. Overall, 9 readers (90%) benefited significantly from CAD, either by increased sensitivity and/or by reduced interpretation time.
CAD for CT colonography significantly increases per-patient and per-polyp detection and significantly reduces interpretation times but cannot substitute for adequate training.
- SourceAvailable from: Lorenzo Faggioni
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- "Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) tools are software applications designed for assisting the radiologist in the diagnosis of several conditions; for detection of lung nodules on chest X-ray or CT, breast nodules in screening mammography, and polyps in CT colonography.39–41 "
ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third-ranked neoplasm in order of incidence and mortality, worldwide, and the second cause of cancer death in industrialized countries. One of the most important environmental risk factors for CRC is a Western-type diet, which is characterized by a low-fiber and high-fat content. Up to 25% of patients with CRC have a family history for CRC, and a fraction of these patients are affected by hereditary syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis, Gardner or Turcot syndromes, or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. The onset of CRC is triggered by a well-defined combination of genetic alterations, which form the bases of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence hypothesis and justify the set-up of CRC screening techniques. Several screening and diagnostic tests for CRC are illustrated, including rectosigmoidoscopy, optical colonoscopy (OC), double contrast barium enema (DCBE), and computed tomography colonography (CTC). The strengths and weaknesses of each technique are discussed. Particular attention is paid to CTC, which has evolved from an experimental technique to an accurate and mature diagnostic approach, and gained wide acceptance and clinical validation for CRC screening. This success of CTC is due mainly to its ability to provide cross-sectional analytical images of the entire colon and secondarily detect extracolonic findings, with minimal invasiveness and lower cost than OC, and with greater detail and diagnostic accuracy than DCBE. Moreover, especially with the advent and widespread availability of modern multidetector CT scanners, excellent quality 2D and 3D reconstructions of the large bowel can be obtained routinely with a relatively low radiation dose. Computer-aided detection systems have also been developed to assist radiologists in reading CTC examinations, improving overall diagnostic accuracy and potentially speeding up the clinical workflow of CTC image interpretation.Cancer Management and Research 12/2010; 3(1):17-24. DOI:10.2147/CMR.S15705
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- "The Colon CAD software for CT Colonography may potentially improve readers’ detection performance and reduce variability among readers . The CAD software can be used in a concurrent reading (CAD findings highlighted during the radiologist’s primary read) or a sequential/second reading paradigm (CAD findings highlighted only after the radiologist’s primary read is complete). "
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) software in detecting and measuring polyps for CT Colonography, based on an in vitro phantom study. A colon phantom was constructed with a PVC pipe of 3.8 cm diameter. Nine simulated polyps of various sizes (3.2mm-25.4mm) were affixed inside the phantom that was placed in a water bath. The phantom was scanned on a 64-slice CT scanner with tube voltage of 120 kV and current of 205 mAs. Two separate scans were performed, with different slice thickness and reconstruction interval. The first scan (thin) had a slice thickness of 1mm and reconstruction interval 0.5mm. The second scan (thick) had a slice thickness of 2mm and reconstruction interval of 1mm. Images from both scans were processed using CT Colonography software that automatically segments the colon phantom and applies CAD that automatically highlights and provides the size (maximum and minimum diameters, volume) of each polyp. Two readers independently measured each polyp (two orthogonal diameters) using both 2D and 3D views. Readers' manual measurements (diameters) and automatic measurements from CAD (diameters and volume) were compared to actual polyp sizes as measured by mechanical calipers. All polyps except the smallest (3.2mm) were detected by CAD. CAD achieved 100% sensitivity in detecting polyps ≥6mm. Mean errors in CAD automated volume measurements for thin and thick slice scans were 8.7% and 6.8%, respectively. Almost all CAD and manual readers' 3D measurements overestimated the size of polyps to variable extent. Both over- and underestimation of polyp sizes were observed in the readers' manual 2D measurements. Overall, Reader 1 (expert) had smaller mean error than Reader 2 (non-expert). CAD provided accurate size measurements for all polyps, and results were comparable to the two readers' manual measurements.Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal 07/2009; 5(3):e15. DOI:10.2349/biij.5.3.e15
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- "CTC is safer than colonoscopy [17,18] while being more sensitive than barium enema, and appears to be more acceptable to patients than either of the other tests . CTC may also be performed by technicians and in principle the data could be read by computer-assistance , accelerating diagnosis and throughput. "
ABSTRACT: The standard whole-colon tests used to investigate patients with symptoms of colorectal cancer are barium enema and colonoscopy. Colonoscopy is the reference test but is technically difficult, resource intensive, and associated with adverse events, especially in the elderly. Barium enema is safer but has reduced sensitivity for cancer. CT colonography ("virtual colonoscopy") is a newer alternative that may combine high sensitivity for cancer with safety and patient acceptability. The SIGGAR trial aims to determine the diagnostic efficacy, acceptability, and economic costs associated with this new technology. The SIGGAR trial is a multi-centre randomised comparison of CT colonography versus standard investigation (barium enema or colonoscopy), the latter determined by individual clinician preference. Diagnostic efficacy for colorectal cancer and colonic polyps measuring 1 cm or larger will be determined, as will the physical and psychological morbidity associated with each diagnostic test, the latter via questionnaires developed from qualitative interviews. The economic costs of making or excluding a diagnosis will be determined for each diagnostic test and information from the trial and other data from the literature will be used to populate models framed to summarise the health effects and costs of alternative approaches to detection of significant colonic neoplasia in patients of different ages, prior risks and preferences. This analysis will focus particularly on the frequency, clinical relevance, costs, and psychological and physical morbidity associated with detection of extracolonic lesions by CT colonography. Recruitment commenced in March 2004 and at the time of writing (July 2007) 5025 patients have been randomised. A lower than expected prevalence of end-points in the barium enema sub-trial has caused an increase in sample size. In addition to the study protocol, we describe our approach to recruitment, notably the benefits of extensive piloting, the use of a sham-randomisation procedure, which was employed to determine whether centres interested in participating were likely to be effective in practice, and the provision of funding for dedicated sessions for a research nurse at each centre to devote specifically to this trial. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN95152621.Trials 02/2007; 8(1):32. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-8-32 · 1.73 Impact Factor