Use of Herbal Medicine and Other Dietary Supplements in Community-Dwelling Older People: Baseline Data from the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (Impact Factor: 4.57). 12/2006; 54(11):1725-35. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2006.00942.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To analyze baseline data from the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) study, in which information was collected on the use of all dietary supplements.
Cross-sectional regression analysis.
GEM study sites in California, Maryland, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania.
The GEM study enrolled 3,072 ambulatory individuals aged 75 and older between September 2000 and June 2002.
Self-reported use of dietary supplements and use identified through bottles brought to the clinic.
Respectively, 59.4%, 66.6%, and 27.4% of the GEM study cohort used a multivitamin, at least one individual vitamin or mineral supplement, and some type of nonvitamin/nonmineral dietary supplement (NVNMDS). In logistic regression models, multivitamin use was associated with female sex, a higher income, a higher modified Mini-Mental State Examination score, difficulty with mobility, and asthma history; use of any other vitamin or mineral was associated with female sex, white race, nonsmoking, more years of schooling, difficulty walking, a history of osteoporosis, and reading health and senior magazines; and NVNMDS use was associated with residing in California, having difficulties with muscle strength, and reading health and senior magazines.
There were substantial differences between individuals who used vitamins and minerals and those who used NVNMDS. These data require that trial investigators pay close attention to participant use of off-protocol dietary supplements. In addition, these findings may help identify elderly individuals likely to combine NVNMDS and prescription drugs.

3 Reads
  • Source
    • "Co-morbidities and antidepressant or neuroleptic therapy did not reveal a significant impact, which might be due to the small sample size. Our results at first oppose the results of Nahin [42], who found that use of herbal and dietary supplements in older people in the United States was associated with female sex, a higher income, and a higher MMSE score in multivariate analysis. Although a subgroup analysis of factors related to the use of Ginkgo biloba had shown only race (white vs. nonwhite) as a significant factor, our results indicate that male patients are more likely to be prescribed Ginkgo biloba. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dementia is a major and increasing health problem worldwide. This study aims to investigate dementia treatment strategies among physicians specialised in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by analysing prescribing patterns and comparing them to current treatment guidelines in Germany. Twenty-two primary care physicians in Germany participated in this prospective, multicentre observational study. Prescriptions and diagnoses were reported for each consecutive patient. Data were included if patients had at least one diagnosis of dementia according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases during the study period. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with a prescription of any anti-dementia drug including Ginkgo biloba. During the 5-year study period (2004-2008), 577 patients with dementia were included (median age: 81 years (IQR: 74-87); 69% female). Dementia was classified as unspecified dementia (57.2%), vascular dementia (25.1%), dementia in Alzheimer's disease (10.4%), and dementia in Parkinson's disease (7.3%). The prevalence of anti-dementia drugs was 25.6%. The phytopharmaceutical Ginkgo biloba was the most frequently prescribed anti-dementia drug overall (67.6% of all) followed by cholinesterase inhibitors (17.6%). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for receiving any anti-dementia drug was greater than 1 for neurologists (AOR = 2.34; CI: 1.59-3.47), the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AOR = 3.28; CI: 1.96-5.50), neuroleptic therapy (AOR = 1.87; CI: 1.22-2.88), co-morbidities hypertension (AOR = 2.03; CI: 1.41-2.90), and heart failure (AOR = 4.85; CI: 3.42-6.88). The chance for a prescription of any anti-dementia drug decreased with the diagnosis of vascular dementia (AOR = 0.64; CI: 0.43-0.95) and diabetes mellitus (AOR = 0.55; CI: 0.36-0.86). The prescription of Ginkgo biloba was associated with sex (female: AOR = 0.41; CI: 0.19-0.89), patient age (AOR = 1.06; CI: 1.02-1.10), treatment by a neurologist (AOR = 0.09; CI: 0.03-0.23), and the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AOR = 0.07; CI: 0.04-0.16). This study provides a comprehensive analysis of everyday practice for treatment of dementia in primary care in physicians with a focus on CAM. The prescribing frequency for anti-dementia drugs is equivalent to those found in other German studies, while the administration of Ginkgo biloba is significantly higher.
    BMC Neurology 08/2011; 11(article 99):99. DOI:10.1186/1471-2377-11-99 · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "On the other hand, G. biloba and A. sativum led to a higher reduction in blood viscosity compared with placebo, which could help reduce the risks of arteriosclerotic and cardiovascular diseases or ischemic cerebral vascular accidents (Matsuura, 2001; Wang et al., 2006; Fukao et al., 2007). Therefore, these two substances can lead to a higher reduction in blood viscosity compared with the placebo, which could help reduce the decline in cerebral blood flow with aging and their effects on cognition and circulation diseases (Nahin et al., 2006; Yeh et al., 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study sought to compare the effects of age and gender on blood viscosity and to appraise the effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba and Allium sativum extracts in reducing blood viscosity. Stage 1: Our sample consisted of 80 male volunteers (40 aged 18-60 and 40 aged 61 and over) and 80 females with the same age profile. Stage 2: We studied 60 male volunteers allocated in groups: placebo, G. biloba, and A. sativum. Stage 3: We studied 25 male volunteers and in the initial, intermediate, and final evaluations, the measures of blood viscosity were repeated. Volunteers were given a clinical evaluation and submitted to laboratory tests. G. biloba led to the highest reduction in blood viscosity compared with placebo and A. sativum. In relation to the use of the two substances, G. biloba and A. sativum, dry extract of G. biloba proved to be more effective in reducing blood viscosity.
    Phytomedicine 09/2007; 14(7-8):447-51. DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2007.06.002 · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Zeitschrift für Gerontologie + Geriatrie 09/2007; 40(4):282-4. · 0.81 Impact Factor
Show more