Use of Herbal Medicine and Other Dietary Supplements in Community-Dwelling Older People: Baseline Data from the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study
ABSTRACT To analyze baseline data from the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) study, in which information was collected on the use of all dietary supplements.
Cross-sectional regression analysis.
GEM study sites in California, Maryland, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania.
The GEM study enrolled 3,072 ambulatory individuals aged 75 and older between September 2000 and June 2002.
Self-reported use of dietary supplements and use identified through bottles brought to the clinic.
Respectively, 59.4%, 66.6%, and 27.4% of the GEM study cohort used a multivitamin, at least one individual vitamin or mineral supplement, and some type of nonvitamin/nonmineral dietary supplement (NVNMDS). In logistic regression models, multivitamin use was associated with female sex, a higher income, a higher modified Mini-Mental State Examination score, difficulty with mobility, and asthma history; use of any other vitamin or mineral was associated with female sex, white race, nonsmoking, more years of schooling, difficulty walking, a history of osteoporosis, and reading health and senior magazines; and NVNMDS use was associated with residing in California, having difficulties with muscle strength, and reading health and senior magazines.
There were substantial differences between individuals who used vitamins and minerals and those who used NVNMDS. These data require that trial investigators pay close attention to participant use of off-protocol dietary supplements. In addition, these findings may help identify elderly individuals likely to combine NVNMDS and prescription drugs.
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ABSTRACT: This study sought to compare the effects of age and gender on blood viscosity and to appraise the effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba and Allium sativum extracts in reducing blood viscosity. Stage 1: Our sample consisted of 80 male volunteers (40 aged 18-60 and 40 aged 61 and over) and 80 females with the same age profile. Stage 2: We studied 60 male volunteers allocated in groups: placebo, G. biloba, and A. sativum. Stage 3: We studied 25 male volunteers and in the initial, intermediate, and final evaluations, the measures of blood viscosity were repeated. Volunteers were given a clinical evaluation and submitted to laboratory tests. G. biloba led to the highest reduction in blood viscosity compared with placebo and A. sativum. In relation to the use of the two substances, G. biloba and A. sativum, dry extract of G. biloba proved to be more effective in reducing blood viscosity.Phytomedicine 09/2007; 14(7-8):447-51. DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2007.06.002 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that physical decline and slower gait may be associated with early signs of dementia, but more information on healthy older adults is needed. We determined associations between cognitive function, gait speed, and self-reported measures of physical function in 3035 healthy mobile participants of the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study evaluated in 2000-2001. Gait speed was measured over a 15-foot course with participants walking at both their usual and rapid pace. Self-reported difficulties with Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and other physical function tasks were also collected. Results of the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE) determined cognitive function. The average age of the cohort was 78.6 years (standard deviation [SD] 3.3), and 53.9% of participants were men. Mean gait speed was 0.95 (SD 0.23) m/s at a usual pace and 1.35 (SD 0.58) m/s at a rapid pace. More than three-fourths of participants had 3MSE scores > 90. In multiple logistic models adjusted for demographics and comorbidities, risk of low cognition (defined as 3MSE score of 80-85) was almost twice as great for participants in the slowest quartile of the rapid-paced walking task than for the fastest walkers (odds ratio: 1.96, 95% confidence interval, 1.25-3.08). Associations between cognition and usual-paced walking were borderline, and no relationships were found with self-reported measures of physical function, including ADLs. In very healthy older adults, performance-based measures better predict early cognitive decline than do subjective measures, and tasks requiring greater functional reserve, such as fast-paced walking, appear to be the most sensitive in assessing these relationships.The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 11/2007; 62(11):1244-51. DOI:10.1093/gerona/62.11.1244 · 4.98 Impact Factor