Decalcification of the mitral annulus: surgical experience in 81 patients.
ABSTRACT Mitral valve surgery in the presence of extensive calcification of the mitral annulus is a technical challenge and increases perioperative risk. This study reviews our experience with decalcification of the mitral annulus in patients undergoing mitral valve reconstruction or replacement.
From 1995 to 2003, 81 patients (mean age 64 +/- 13 years, 30 male, 51 female) with extensive calcification of the mitral annulus underwent mitral valve repair (n = 42) or replacement (biological n = 20, mechanical n = 19). The mean follow-up was 24 months. Patients presented with a mean EuroSCORE of 7. Concomitant surgical procedures were performed in 62 %. Patient outcomes were retrospectively assessed.
Perioperative survival was 97.5 % (n = 79) and hospital survival was 91.3 % (n = 74). Two-year survival was 88.9 %. Eight patients needed reexploration due to bleeding and five patients required prolonged mechanical ventilation. No perioperative stroke was observed. Freedom from reoperation was 90.2 % (n = 73). Early reoperation for recurrent incompetence was necessary in 3 patients and late reoperation in 5 patients.
Despite the elevated perioperative risk and the high risk of reoperation with this procedure, decalcification of the annulus and repair/replacement of the mitral valve could be performed with good clinical results.
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ABSTRACT: Extensive mitral annular calcification (MAC) can represent a significant surgical challenge. We use three illustrative examples to describe our early experience with electrocardiogram-gated cardiac computed tomography (CT) as a preoperative tool to localize MAC and to predict requisite surgical techniques. In all three cases, cardiac CT accurately delineated the location and extent of calcification compared with intraoperative findings, and in each case, it assisted in predicting the required operation (avoidance vs resection of calcification; need for annular reconstruction). All 3 patients experienced an uneventful postoperative course with no evidence of paravalvular leak on follow-up echocardiography.The Annals of thoracic surgery 01/2013; 95(1):e9-e11. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES Mitral annular calcification is associated with significant morbidity and mortality at the time of mitral valve surgery. However, few data are available describing the impact of mitral annular calcification on early and late outcomes following mitral valve repair in the current era.METHODS Between 2001 and 2011, 625 patients were referred for mitral valve repair of severe mitral regurgitation due to myxomatous degeneration. The mean patient age was 63.9 ± 12.7 years and 164 (26%) were female. Concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 91 (15%) and 24 (4%) had previous cardiac surgery. Calcification of the mitral annulus was observed in 119 patients (19%), of whom complete debridement and extensive annulus reconstruction were performed in 14. The mean follow-up was for 2.4 ± 2.3 years.RESULTSThere were no deaths within 30 days of surgery. Risk factors associated with mitral annular calcification included older age (odds ratio 1.05 ± 0.02 per increasing year), female gender (odds ratio 1.88 ± 0.42) and larger preoperative left atrial size (odds ratio 1.04 ± 0.03 per increasing mm) (all P < 0.01). Severe renal impairment defined as a creatinine clearance <30 mL/min was observed in 9 patients, all of whom had mitral annular calcification. Intraoperative conversion to mitral valve replacement was performed in 19 patients (97% repair rate), 5 of whom had mitral annular calcification. Extension of mitral annular calcification into one or more leaflet scallops was observed for all patients who required conversion to valve replacement. Five-year survival, freedom from recurrent mitral regurgitation ≥2+ and freedom from recurrent mitral regurgitation ≥3+ was 88.1 ± 2.4, 89.6 ± 2.3 and 97.8 ± 0.8%, respectively. Mitral annular calcification was not associated with survival or recurrent mitral regurgitation.CONCLUSIONS Risk factors for mitral annular calcification in patients with myxomatous degeneration and severe mitral regurgitation include older age, female gender, severe renal dysfunction and larger preoperative left atrial size. Nevertheless, favourable early and late results can be achieved with mitral valve repair in this population.Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 04/2013; · 1.11 Impact Factor
- Texas Heart Institute journal / from the Texas Heart Institute of St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital 04/2014; 41(2):245-7. · 0.67 Impact Factor