In vitro effects of dextran sulfate sodium on a Caco-2 cell line and plausible mechanisms for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.
ABSTRACT Pathogenic mechanisms responsible for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are poorly understood. In an IBD animal model, the oral administration of polysaccharides such as dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induces colitis, which exhibit several clinical and histological features for IBD. However, pathogenic factors in the development of colitis remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated possible mechanisms for DSS-induced colitis, and mainly focused on biological responses from an intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2. Cytotoxicity and cytokine release were measured using MTS assays and ELISA, respectively. The effect of DSS on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cell monolayers was also evaluated. Cell cycle progression was estimated using antibodies directed against p53 and cdc-2 proteins. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using a DCFH-DA method. Pyridylamino-DSS (PA-DSS) was used as a fluorometric label in order to investigate fluorescence-microscopically the location of DSS in Caco-2 cells. DSS induced cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells at 5%. DSS also induced strong TEER decrease at 3%. DSS induced the weak release of IL-8, IL-6, and TGF-beta1. Remarkably DSS arrested Caco-2 cell cycle and reduced the intracellular generation of ROS. Under fluorescence microscopy, PA-DSS entered cells and bound to the nucleus, indicating this binding of DSS may be involved in the cell cycle arrest of Caco-2 cells. The cell cycle arrest and reduced intracellular generation of ROS may be involved during initiation or throughout the early stages of DSS-induced colitis.
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ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1, isolated from and identified in Taiwanese milk kefir grain, has demonstrated immune-modulating activity. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 on intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in vivo. The possible mechanisms regarding the cytokine products and intestinal epithelial barrier restoration as well as the putative receptor for the protective effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 were investigated. In vitro results indicated that Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 could strengthen the epithelial barrier function in vitro by increasing the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and significantly upregulated the level of the chemokine CCL-20 at both the apical and basolateral sites. The in vivo effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 on the regulation of intestinal physiology indicate that this strain could ameliorate DSS-induced colitis with a significant attenuation of the bleeding score and colon length shortening. Production of proinflammatory cytokines was decreased and that of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased in the DSS-treated mice given Lb. kefiranofaciens M1. The putative receptor for the protective effects of Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 was toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which was involved in probiotic-induced cytokine production in vitro and in attenuation of the bleeding score and colon length shortening in vivo. In this study, the kefir lactobacillus Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 clearly demonstrated an anticolitis effect. Based on these results, Lb. kefiranofaciens M1 has the potential to be applied in fermented dairy products as an alternative therapy for intestinal disorders.Journal of Dairy Science 01/2012; 95(1):63-74. DOI:10.3168/jds.2011-4696 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epigenetic fields for cancerization are involved in development of human cancers, especially those associated with inflammation and multiple occurrences. However, it is still unclear when such field defects are formed and what component of inflammation is involved in induction of aberrant DNA methylation. Here, in a mouse colitis model induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), we identified three CpG islands specifically methylated in colonic epithelial cells exposed to colitis. Their methylation levels started to increase as early as 8 weeks after DSS treatment and continued to increase until colon cancers developed at 15 weeks. In contrast to the temporal profile of DNA methylation levels, infiltration of inflammatory cells spiked immediately after the DSS treatment and then gradually decreased. Exposure of cultured colonic epithelial cells to DSS did not induce DNA methylation and it was indicated that inflammation triggered by the DSS treatment was responsible for methylation induction. To clarify components of inflammation involved, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that lack functional T- and B-cells were similarly treated. Even in SCID mice, DNA methylation, along with colon tumors, were induced at the same levels as in their background strain of mice (C.B17). Comparative analysis of inflammation-related genes showed that Ifng, Il1b and Nos2 had expression concordant with methylation induction whereas Il2, Il6, Il10, Tnf did not. These results showed that an epigenetic field defect is formed at early stages of colitis-associated carcinogenesis and that functional T and B cells are non-essential for the formation.Oncogene 06/2011; 31(3):342-51. DOI:10.1038/onc.2011.241 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Airway epithelial salt and water transport takes place through paracellular and transcellular pathways. This transport depends critically on the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), operating in concert with the paracellular pathway through the tight junctions (TJ). Normal (16HBE14o-), cystic fibrosis (CFBE41o-), and corrected CFBE41o- (CFBE41o-pCep4 overexpressing wtCFTR) airway epithelial cell lines were cultured under isotonic conditions. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured as indicator of the tightness of the cultures. Morphology was investigated by immunofluorescence and paracellular permeability by lanthanum nitrate or [14C] mannitol as permeability markers. The CFTR-defective cell line CFBE41o- developed higher TEER than its corrected counterpart CFBE41o-pCep4. Addition of a specific inhibitor of CFTR (CFTR(inh)-172) to 16HBE14o- and CFBE41o-pCep4 cells resulted in a time-dependent increase in TEER, whereas stimulation of CFTR by IBMX and forskolin caused a decrease. Permeability to lanthanum and [14C] mannitol was lower in CFBE41o- and in 16HBE14o- cells exposed to CFTR(inh)-172, compared to untreated 16HBE14o- and CFBE41o-pCep4 cells, respectively. 16HBE14o- cells exposed to IBMX and forskolin showed higher permeability to lanthanum but lower permeability to [14C] mannitol compared to control. Immunofluorescence revealed a disorganization of F-actin and alpha-tubulin in 16HBE14o- cells and CFBE41o- pCep4 exposed to CFTR(inh)-172 and in CFBE41o- cells. Changes in F-actin and alpha-tubulin in 16HBE14o- cells exposed to IBMX and forskolin were also seen. These results suggest the possibility of an interaction between CFTR and the TJ protein complex, probably via the cytoskeleton.Experimental and Molecular Pathology 10/2009; 88(1):118-27. DOI:10.1016/j.yexmp.2009.09.018 · 2.88 Impact Factor