Article

DNA nucleotide excision repair-dependent signaling to checkpoint activation.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari e Biotecnologie, Universitá degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milano, Italy.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 12/2006; 103(46):17325-30. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0605446103
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Eukaryotic cells respond to a variety of DNA insults by triggering a common signal transduction cascade, known as checkpoint response, which temporarily halts cell-cycle progression. Although the main players involved in the cascade have been identified, there is still uncertainty about the nature of the structures that activate these surveillance mechanisms. To understand the role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in checkpoint activation, we analyzed the UV-induced phosphorylation of the key checkpoint proteins Chk1 and p53, in primary fibroblasts from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), trichothiodystrophy (TTD), or UV light-sensitive syndrome. These disorders are due to defects in transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) and/or global genome NER (GG-NER), the NER subpathways repairing the transcribed strand of active genes or the rest of the genome, respectively. We show here that in G0/G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle, triggering of the DNA damage cascade requires recognition and processing of the lesions by the GG-NER. Loss of TC-NER does not affect checkpoint activation. Mutations in XPD, XPB, and in TTDA, encoding subunits of the TFIIH complex, involved in both transcription and NER, impair checkpoint triggering. The only exception is represented by mutations in XPD, resulting in combined features of XP and CS (XP/CS) that lead to activation of the checkpoint cascade after UV radiation. Inhibition of RNA polymerase II transcription significantly reduces the phosphorylation of key checkpoint factors in XP/CS fibroblasts on exposure to UV damage.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Federica Marini, Jul 03, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
264 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Single-stranded DNA gaps that might arise by futile repair processes can lead to mutagenic events and challenge genome integrity. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an evolutionarily conserved repair mechanism, essential for removal of helix-distorting DNA lesions. In the currently prevailing model, NER operates through coordinated assembly of repair factors into pre- and post-incision complexes; however, its regulation in vivo is poorly understood. Notably, the transition from dual incision to repair synthesis should be rigidly synchronized as it might lead to accumulation of unprocessed repair intermediates. We monitored NER regulatory events in vivo using sequential UV irradiations. Under conditions that allow incision yet prevent completion of repair synthesis or ligation, preincision factors can reassociate with new damage sites. In contrast, replication protein A remains at the incomplete NER sites and regulates a feedback loop from completion of DNA repair synthesis to subsequent damage recognition, independently of ATR signaling. Our data reveal an important function for replication protein A in averting further generation of DNA strand breaks that could lead to mutagenic and recombinogenic events.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 02/2011; 192(3):401-15. DOI:10.1083/jcb.201006011 · 9.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet (UV) light induces DNA-damage checkpoints and mutagenesis, which are involved in cancer protection and tumorigenesis, respectively. How cells identify DNA lesions and convert them to checkpoint-activating structures is a major question. We show that during repair of UV lesions in noncycling cells, Exo1-mediated processing of nucleotide excision repair (NER) intermediates competes with repair DNA synthesis. Impediments of the refilling reaction allow Exo1 to generate extended ssDNA gaps, detectable by electron microscopy, which drive Mec1 kinase activation and will be refilled by long-patch repair synthesis, as shown by DNA combing. We provide evidence that this mechanism may be stimulated by closely opposing UV lesions, represents a strategy to redirect problematic repair intermediates to alternative repair pathways, and may also be extended to physically different DNA damages. Our work has significant implications for understanding the coordination between repair of DNA lesions and checkpoint pathways to preserve genome stability.
    Molecular cell 10/2010; 40(1):50-62. DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2010.09.004 · 14.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: DNA damage checkpoint pathways operate to prevent cell-cycle progression in response to DNA damage and replication stress. In S. cerevisiae, Mec1-Ddc2 (human ATR-ATRIP) is the principal checkpoint protein kinase. Biochemical studies have identified two factors, the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp and the Dpb11/TopBP1 replication protein, as potential activators of Mec1/ATR. Here, we show that G1 phase checkpoint activation of Mec1 is achieved by the Ddc1 subunit of 9-1-1, while Dpb11 is dispensable. However, in G2, 9-1-1 activates Mec1 by two distinct mechanisms. One mechanism involves direct activation of Mec1 by Ddc1, while the second proceeds by Dpb11 recruitment mediated through Ddc1 T602 phosphorylation. Two aromatic residues, W352 and W544, localized to two widely separated, conserved motifs of Ddc1, are essential for Mec1 activation in vitro and checkpoint function in G1. Remarkably, small peptides that fuse the two tryptophan-containing motifs together are proficient in activating Mec1.
    Molecular cell 12/2009; 36(5):743-53. DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2009.10.014 · 14.46 Impact Factor