HEV, a positive stranded RNA virus, is responsible for most of the epidemics of hepatitis in the developing world and is transmitted through contaminated water. It is the major aetiological agent for acute hepatitis and acute liver failure in endemic regions. It causes severe liver disease among pregnant females and patients with chronic liver disease. Serodiagnosis of HEV is now available and should be used routinely for diagnosis. The available evidence suggests that HEV may also be transmitted parenterally as well as vertically particularly in endemic areas. Experimental studies suggest that an HEV vaccine is a distinct possibility in the near future. In the absence of an effective vaccine, public health measures such as clean water supply, improved sanitation and public education are the major tools to prevent HEV epidemics in developing nations.
"Transmission of HEV occurs primarily by the fecal-oral route through fecal contamination of drinking water in developing countries. HEV may also be transmitted parenterally as well as vertically particularly in endemic areas (10), but person to person transmission is uncommon (1). Recent studies have indicated that zoonosis is involved in the transmission of HEV, especially in industrialized countries (11, 12). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major public health concern in developing countries. HEV transmission occurs primarily by the fecal-oral route. It has also been reported that blood donors are potentially able to cause transfusion-associated hepatitis E in endemic areas. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HEV infection among volunteer blood donors in Central province of Iran in 2012.
A total of 530 consecutive blood donor samples collected from Blood Transfusion Organization, Central Province of Iran. All samples were tested for the presence of IgG Hepatitis E antibody (anti-HEV) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
From 530 blood donors, 91.9% were male and 8.1% were female. Overall, anti-HEV was found in 76 of 530 samples (14.3%). There was no significant difference in HEV seropositivity between the subjects regarding gender and area of residence (urban vs. rural). Anti-HEV was distributed among all age groups. Although people aged 31-50 years had the highest prevalence, but there was no statistical difference between the age groups.
This study shows a relatively high prevalence of anti-HEV in the blood donors of Central province of Iran. More investigations are needed to assess the potential benefit of adding HEV screening of blood products to the current blood donor selection criteria.
"All swine isolates belong to genotype 3 and 4 and no animal isolates to date belong to genotype 1 and 2. This may indicate that genotype 1 and 2 may not be capable of crossing the species barrier whereas genotype 3 and 4 can do so. On the other hand, genotype 1 and 2 cause severe liver disease whereas genotype 3 and 4 cause milder disease  . It is further evident by the observation that the seroprevalence of anti-HEV in populations belonging to developed nations varies from 5–21% , indicating frequent exposure but epidemic outbreaks and the low frequency of autochthonous hepatitis would suggest that these viruses may be more benign than those prevalent in hyper-endemic region. "
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