Hepatitis E virus: epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology and prevention.

Department of Gastroenterology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.
Tropical gastroenterology: official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation 27(2):63-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT HEV, a positive stranded RNA virus, is responsible for most of the epidemics of hepatitis in the developing world and is transmitted through contaminated water. It is the major aetiological agent for acute hepatitis and acute liver failure in endemic regions. It causes severe liver disease among pregnant females and patients with chronic liver disease. Serodiagnosis of HEV is now available and should be used routinely for diagnosis. The available evidence suggests that HEV may also be transmitted parenterally as well as vertically particularly in endemic areas. Experimental studies suggest that an HEV vaccine is a distinct possibility in the near future. In the absence of an effective vaccine, public health measures such as clean water supply, improved sanitation and public education are the major tools to prevent HEV epidemics in developing nations.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major public health concern in developing countries. HEV transmission occurs primarily by the fecal-oral route. It has also been reported that blood donors are potentially able to cause transfusion-associated hepatitis E in endemic areas. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HEV infection among volunteer blood donors in Central province of Iran in 2012. A total of 530 consecutive blood donor samples collected from Blood Transfusion Organization, Central Province of Iran. All samples were tested for the presence of IgG Hepatitis E antibody (anti-HEV) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). From 530 blood donors, 91.9% were male and 8.1% were female. Overall, anti-HEV was found in 76 of 530 samples (14.3%). There was no significant difference in HEV seropositivity between the subjects regarding gender and area of residence (urban vs. rural). Anti-HEV was distributed among all age groups. Although people aged 31-50 years had the highest prevalence, but there was no statistical difference between the age groups. This study shows a relatively high prevalence of anti-HEV in the blood donors of Central province of Iran. More investigations are needed to assess the potential benefit of adding HEV screening of blood products to the current blood donor selection criteria.
    06/2013; 5(2):172-6.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: To assess seroprevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV) in healthy blood donors and hepatitis B, C pa- tients. Methods: 450 subjects consisted of 200 blood donors in Tehran blood transfusion center, 100 subjects with hepatitis C and 150 subjects with hepatitis B infection enrolled in this study. The A549 cell line was grown in mixed medium. Cells were infected with hepatitis E virus that was purified from stool sample of a patient confirmed for hepatitis E infection by reverse transcription-poly- merase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Supernatant of infected cells was used as positive control in our RT- PCR assay. Results: In a total of 450 subjects, 33 (7.3%) had positive anti-HEV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anti-HEV was seen in (9/200) 4.5%, (7/100) 7%, and (17/150) 11.3% of healthy blood donors, hepatitis C, and hepatitis B subjects, respectively. Difference between two groups was statistically significance (P = 0.028). Dif- ference between frequency of anti-HEV in hepatitis B in relation to healthy blood donors was significant (P = 0.014). Conclusions: HEV infection is more common in subjects with hepatitis B. Keywords: Hepatitis E virus, Seropreva- lence, Transmission, Iran
    06/2009; 1(1). DOI:10.3329/blj.v1i1.2623
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HEV, a positive ssRNA and nonenveloped virus, is endemic In many developing countries and one of the most frequent causes of acute hepatitis after fecal-oral transmission. Pregnant women are at particular risk for a fatal course of disease, including maternal and fetal mortality. Rocent reports Indicate that HEV genotype 3, possibly related to zoonotic transmission, may cause chronic hepatitis In some immunosuppressed organ transplant patients. Various approaches have been conducted to develop HEV vaccines, but only one candidate, a recombinant HEV (rHEV) vaccine generated from Spodoptera frugiperda-9 cells by baculoviruses expressing the HEV capsid antigen, has reached clinical Phase I and II trials so for. These trials suggest that the rHEV vaccine Is safe and can prevent clinically overt acute hepatitis E In high-risk populations. We herein review the different approaches in HEV-vaccine development and critically discuss the current status and future directions of the rHEV vaccine used in clinical trials.
    Future Virology 03/2009; 4(2):143-154. DOI:10.2217/17460794.4.2.143 · 1.00 Impact Factor