Underestimation of the presence of breast carcinoma in papillary lesions initially diagnosed at core-needle biopsy
ABSTRACT To retrospectively determine the degree of underestimation of breast carcinoma diagnosis in papillary lesions initially diagnosed at core-needle biopsy.
Institutional review board approval and waiver of informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. Mammographic database review (1994-2003) revealed core biopsy diagnoses of benign papilloma (n=38), atypical papilloma (n=15), sclerotic papilloma (n=6), and micropapilloma (n=4) in 57 women (mean age, 57 years). Excisional or mammographic follow-up (>or=2 years) findings were available. Patients with in situ or invasive cancer in the same breast or patients without follow-up were excluded. Findings were collected from mammography, ultrasonography, core technique, core biopsy, excision, and subsequent mammography. Reference standard was excisional findings or follow-up mammogram with no change at 2 years. Associations were examined with regression methods.
In 38 of 63 lesions, surgical excision was performed; in 25 additional lesions (considered benign), follow-up mammography (24-month minimum) was performed, with no interval change. In 15 lesions, 14-gauge core needle was used; in 48, vacuum assistance (mean cores per lesion, 8.7). Carcinoma was found at excision in 14 of 38 lesions. Core pathologic findings associated with malignancy were benign papilloma (n=1), sclerotic papilloma (n=1), micropapilloma (n=2), and atypical papilloma (n=10). Frequency of malignancy was one (3%) of 38 benign papillomas, 10 (67%) of 15 atypical papillomas, two (50%) of four micropapillomas, and one (17%) of six sclerotic papillomas. Excisional findings included lobular carcinoma in situ (n=2), ductal carcinoma in situ (n=7), papillary carcinoma (n=2), and invasive ductal carcinoma (n=3). Low-risk group (micropapillomas and sclerotic and benign papillomas) was compared with high-risk atypical papilloma group. Core findings were associated with malignancy at excision for atypical papilloma (P=.006). Lesion location, mammographic finding, core number, or needle type were not associated (P>.05) with underestimation of malignancy at excision.
Benign papilloma diagnosed at core biopsy is infrequently (3%) associated with malignancy; mammographic follow-up is reasonable. Because of the high association with malignancy (67%), diagnosis of atypical papilloma at core biopsy should prompt excision for definitive diagnosis.
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ABSTRACT: Prediction of subsequent risks of breast carcinoma (BC) development in intraductal papilloma (IDP) has remained controversial with the exception of atypical papilloma (AP). The potential value of immunohistochemistry (IHC) of cytokeratin 5/6 [CK5/6] and p63 have been proposed but its standardization has also remained controversial. We studied 17 patients initially diagnosed as IDP or AP who subsequently developed BC with 34 age-matched controls. We compared histological features, results of IHC (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR], human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2], p63, CK5/6, Ki67), and ultrasound findings. Univariate conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that the status of both CK5/6 and p63/CK5/6 were significantly associated with subsequent BC development (P < 0.05). BC development in CK5/6 positive patients was 17.9% and p63/CK5/6 double positive patients 8.6%, respectively. Ultrasound evaluation was not significantly associated with any of the parameters examined and subsequent carcinoma development. Despite CK5/6 positivity, the subsequent incidence of BC development was nearly 20%. However p63/CK5/6 double positive status could predict a significantly lower subsequent carcinoma incidence, indicating a more accurate prognostic utility. Combining p63/CK5/6 with histological findings could be easily applied and could predict the subsequent BC development of the patients diagnosed as IDP at biopsy. © 2015 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
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ABSTRACT: One-hundred-fourteen consecutive cases of breast ultrasound-guided 14-gauge needle core biopsy (14G NCB) performed from January 2001 to June 2013 and diagnosed as non-malignant papillary lesion (PL)-B3, were reviewed and compared with definitive histological diagnosis on surgical excision (SE) to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound-guided 14G NCB. PL with epithelial atypia on 14G NCB were associated to malignancy on definitive histological diagnosis on SE in 22 (7 DCIS and 15 invasive carcinomas) of 46 cases with an underestimation rate of 47.8 %, while 9 (4 DCIS and 5 invasive carcinomas) cases out of 68 cases of PL without epithelial atypia were upgraded to carcinoma with an underestimation rate of 13.2 %. In cases of PL with epithelial atypia on ultrasound-guided 14G NCB, SE appears mandatory due to the high risk of associated malignancy. The diagnosis of PL without epithelial atypia on ultrasound-guided 14G NCB does not exclude malignancy at subsequent SE, consequently further assessment (by surgical or vacuum-assisted excision) is recommended to avoid the risk of delaying a diagnosis of malignancy, although this tends to be lower (1 in 8 patients).Pathology & Oncology Research 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12253-014-9882-7 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nipple discharge is commonly encountered by health care providers, accounting for 2-5% (1) of medical visits by women. Because nipple discharge is the presenting symptom in 5% to 12 % of breast cancers, it causes considerable anxiety for both patient and providers. Furthermore, the work up and management of nipple discharge can be confusing. Fortunately, the cause of nipple discharge is usually benign, so that (2) the primary goal of evaluation and management is separation of patients with pathologic causes of discharge from those with benign or physiologic causes. The evaluation of nipple discharge requires a thorough history, careful physical examination, and an informed approach that selects the most suitable diagnostic modality. Primary care providers, working with their radiologists and surgeons, are well positioned to design appropriate diagnostic and management protocols to assess and treat nipple discharge. A thoughtful and prudent approach to nipple discharge should alleviate patient anxiety by efficiently and effectively defining the underlying etiology.The American Journal of Medicine 10/2014; 128(4). DOI:10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.09.031 · 5.30 Impact Factor