Underestimation of the Presence of Breast Carcinoma in Papillary Lesions Initially Diagnosed at Core-Needle Biopsy1

Virginia Commonwealth University, Ричмонд, Virginia, United States
Radiology (Impact Factor: 6.21). 01/2007; 242(1):58-62. DOI: 10.1148/radiol.2421031988
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To retrospectively determine the degree of underestimation of breast carcinoma diagnosis in papillary lesions initially diagnosed at core-needle biopsy.
Institutional review board approval and waiver of informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. Mammographic database review (1994-2003) revealed core biopsy diagnoses of benign papilloma (n=38), atypical papilloma (n=15), sclerotic papilloma (n=6), and micropapilloma (n=4) in 57 women (mean age, 57 years). Excisional or mammographic follow-up (>or=2 years) findings were available. Patients with in situ or invasive cancer in the same breast or patients without follow-up were excluded. Findings were collected from mammography, ultrasonography, core technique, core biopsy, excision, and subsequent mammography. Reference standard was excisional findings or follow-up mammogram with no change at 2 years. Associations were examined with regression methods.
In 38 of 63 lesions, surgical excision was performed; in 25 additional lesions (considered benign), follow-up mammography (24-month minimum) was performed, with no interval change. In 15 lesions, 14-gauge core needle was used; in 48, vacuum assistance (mean cores per lesion, 8.7). Carcinoma was found at excision in 14 of 38 lesions. Core pathologic findings associated with malignancy were benign papilloma (n=1), sclerotic papilloma (n=1), micropapilloma (n=2), and atypical papilloma (n=10). Frequency of malignancy was one (3%) of 38 benign papillomas, 10 (67%) of 15 atypical papillomas, two (50%) of four micropapillomas, and one (17%) of six sclerotic papillomas. Excisional findings included lobular carcinoma in situ (n=2), ductal carcinoma in situ (n=7), papillary carcinoma (n=2), and invasive ductal carcinoma (n=3). Low-risk group (micropapillomas and sclerotic and benign papillomas) was compared with high-risk atypical papilloma group. Core findings were associated with malignancy at excision for atypical papilloma (P=.006). Lesion location, mammographic finding, core number, or needle type were not associated (P>.05) with underestimation of malignancy at excision.
Benign papilloma diagnosed at core biopsy is infrequently (3%) associated with malignancy; mammographic follow-up is reasonable. Because of the high association with malignancy (67%), diagnosis of atypical papilloma at core biopsy should prompt excision for definitive diagnosis.

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    ABSTRACT: ObjectiveTo prospectively determine the upgrade rate following surgery in benign papilloma initially diagnosed at ultrasound (US)-guided 14-gauge gun biopsy. MethodsA total of 128 benign papillomas were diagnosed in 114 patients after a US-guided biopsy. Surgical excision was recommended where the biopsy indicated benign papilloma, regardless of imaging findings. The upgrade rate to ‘atypical’ and ‘malignancy’ was measured on a per-lesion basis. We analysed potential associations between clinical presentation, lesion variables and the results of surgical excision (using logistic regression). ResultsOf the 114 patients, 87 eventually underwent surgery: among the 100 supposed benign papillomas, surgical excision revealed fibrocystic change or no residual lesion in nine cases, intraductal papilloma in 74, atypical papilloma in 13, papillary ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in three and one invasive papillary carcinoma. The upgrade rate for an atypical papilloma or papilloma with adjacent foci of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and malignancy was 13% (95% CI = 7.1–21.2%) and 4% (95% CI = 1.1–9.9%), respectively. The mean lesion size (P = 0.041) was significantly larger when lesions were upgraded to malignancy. Other features were not significantly associated with pathological underestimation (P > 0.05). ConclusionSurgical excision should be considered for benign intraductal papillomas above 1.5cm in size. KeywordsBenign papilloma-Atypical papilloma-Papillary ductal carcinoma in situ-Invasive papillary carcinoma-US-guided 14-G gun biopsy
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