Angiotensin II causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy through its receptors in the kidney.

Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center and Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 12/2006; 103(47):17985-90. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0605545103
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Essential hypertension is a common disease, yet its pathogenesis is not well understood. Altered control of sodium excretion in the kidney may be a key causative feature, but this has been difficult to test experimentally, and recent studies have challenged this hypothesis. Based on the critical role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the type I (AT1) angiotensin receptor in essential hypertension, we developed an experimental model to separate AT1 receptor pools in the kidney from those in all other tissues. Although actions of the RAS in a variety of target organs have the potential to promote high blood pressure and end-organ damage, we show here that angiotensin II causes hypertension primarily through effects on AT1 receptors in the kidney. We find that renal AT1 receptors are absolutely required for the development of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. When AT1 receptors are eliminated from the kidney, the residual repertoire of systemic, extrarenal AT1 receptors is not sufficient to induce hypertension or cardiac hypertrophy. Our findings demonstrate the critical role of the kidney in the pathogenesis of hypertension and its cardiovascular complications. Further, they suggest that the major mechanism of action of RAS inhibitors in hypertension is attenuation of angiotensin II effects in the kidney.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Renal proximal tubules (PTs) play important roles in the regulation of acid/base, plasma volume and blood pressure. Recent studies suggest that there are substantial species differences in the regulation of PT transport. For example, thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the use of TZDs is associated with fluid overload. In addition to the transcriptional enhancement of sodium transport in distal nephrons, TZDs rapidly stimulate PT sodium transport via a non-genomic mechanism depending on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ/Src/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/MEK/ERK. In mouse PTs, however, TZDs fail to stimulate PT transport probably due to constitutive activation of Src/EGFR/ERK pathway. This unique activation of Src/ERK may also affect the effect of high concentrations of insulin on mouse PT transport. On the other hand, the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on PT transport is known to be biphasic in rabbits, rats, and mice. However, Ang II induces a concentration-dependent, monophasic transport stimulation in human PTs. The contrasting responses to nitric oxide/guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate pathway may largely explain these different effects of Ang II on PT transport. In this review, we focus on the recent findings on the species differences in the regulation of PT transport, which may help understand the species-specific mechanisms underlying edema formation and/or hypertension occurrence.
    05/2015; 4(2):307-12. DOI:10.5527/wjn.v4.i2.307
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We previously identified peptide Lv, a novel bioactive peptide that enhances the activity of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) in cone photoreceptors. In this study, we verified that peptide Lv was able to augment L-VGCC currents in cardiomyocytes, as well as promote proliferation of endothelial cells. We used a proteomics approach to determine the specific receptors and binding partners of peptide Lv and found that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) interacted with peptide Lv. Peptide Lv treatment in embryonic cardiomyocytes stimulated tyrosine autophosphorylation of VEGFR2 and activated its downstream signaling. Peptide Lv activity was blocked by DMH4, a VEGFR2 specific blocker, but not by SCH202676, an allosteric inhibitor of G protein-coupled receptors, suggesting that the activity of peptide Lv was mediated through VEGFR2 signaling. Inhibition of VEGFR tyrosine kinase or its downstream signaling molecules abolished the augmentation of L-VGCCs elicited by peptide Lv in cardiomyocytes. In addition, peptide Lv promoted cell proliferation of cultured human endothelial cells. Calcium entry through L-VGCCs is essential for excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes. Since peptide Lv was able to augment L-VGCCs through activation of VEGF signaling in cardiomyocytes and promote proliferation of endothelial cells, peptide Lv may play an important role in regulating the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 02/2015; 7(5). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2015.02.007 · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates (pro) renin receptor (PRR) expression in the renal collecting duct, triggering the local renin response in the distal nephron. Our recent study provided evidence for involvement of cyclooxygenase-2-prostaglandin E-2 pathway in Ang II-dependent stimulation of PRR expression in the collecting duct. Here, we tested the role of E-prostanoid (EP) subtypes acting downstream of cyclooxygenase-2 in this phenomenon. In primary rat inner medullary collecting duct cells, Ang II treatment for 12 hours induced a 1.8-fold increase in the full-length PRR protein expression. To assess the contribution of EP receptor, the cell was pretreated with specific EP receptor antagonists: SC-51382 (for EP1), L-798106 (for EP3), L-161982 (for EP4), and ONO-AE3-208 (ONO, a structurally distinct EP4 antagonist). The upregulation of PRR expression by Ang II was consistently abolished by L-161982 and ONO and partially suppressed by SC-51382 but was unaffected by L-798106. The PRR expression was also significantly elevated by the EP4 agonist CAY10598 in the absence of Ang II. Sprague-Dawley rats were subsequently infused for 1 or 2 weeks with vehicle, Ang II alone, or in combination with ONO. Ang II infusion induced parallel increases in renal medullary PRR protein and renal medullary and urinary renin activity and total renin content, all of which were blunted by ONO. Both tail cuff plethysmography and telemetry demonstrated attenuation of Ang II hypertension by ONO. Overall, these results have established a crucial role of the EP4 receptor in mediating the upregulation of renal medullary PRR expression and renin activity during Ang II hypertension.
    Hypertension 07/2014; 64(2):369-377. DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.03654 · 7.63 Impact Factor


Available from