Mycoplasma qenitalium: Prevalence and behavioural risk factors in the general population

Research Unit for General Practice, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
Sexually Transmitted Infections (Impact Factor: 3.4). 07/2007; 83(3):237-41. DOI: 10.1136/sti.2006.022970
Source: PubMed


Mycoplasma genitalium has been shown to cause urethritis in men and cervicitis in women and may also be a causative agent in female infertility.
To estimate the prevalence of urogenital M genitalium infection and identify sexual behavioural risk factors in the general population.
Participating individuals were 731 men and 921 women aged 21-23 years and not seeking the healthcare system because of symptoms. They answered questionnaires on sexual behaviour and provided samples for M genitalium testing.
In women aged 21-23 years, the prevalence of infection was 2.3% (21/921) and in men of the same age it was 1.1% (8/731). For both sexes, an increasing number of partners was associated with a greater chance of being infected. Among women a shorter duration of a steady relationship and having a partner with symptoms was associated with being infected, and for men younger age at first intercourse was associated with M genitalium infection.
We conclude that the prevalence of infection in the general population is too low for population-based screening. However, the development of test algorithms based on behavioural risk factors is a promising alternative.

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    • "Many studies confirm low percentage of M. genitalium in healthy women without symptoms: 4.5% of positive cases were described by English authors [24]. In Denmark, among 731 men and 921 women aged 21–23 without any symptoms in the urogenital tract, M. genitalium DNA was demonstrated in 2.3% women and in 1.1% men [25]. M. genitalium is clearly defined as an etiologic agent of STI. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial infections, especially endogenous, are the frequent complications among hemodialyzed and renal transplant patients. In this study we assumed the prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas and HPV among hemodialysed women. We examined 32 hemodialysed women aged 20-48 (mean 35.6 ± 8.23) and 100 healthy controls of the same ages. Two swabs were collected for detection of mycoplasmas and HPV. Culture of Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis was performed using Mycoplasma IST2 (bioMérieux, France), Identificaton of U. parvum and U. urealyticum was performed by Kong. Primers described by Jensen were used for M. genitalium. For detection of high-risk HPV types Amplicor HPV (Roche Molecular System, CA) was used. Prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas in the hemodialysed women (53.1%) was significantly higher (P = 0.0059), compared with controls (25%). In both groups, U. parvum was the most frequently isolated. Cooccurrence of urogenital mycoplasmas was shown in 75% of the HPV-positive hemodialysed women and in 30.4% of HPV-positive controls (P = 0.0461). Cooccurrence of urogenital mycoplasmas with HPV was significantly higher in hemodialysed women. The need to take into account these microorganisms in routine diagnostic, especially for hemodialysed patients, was demonstrated. Further studies to demonstrate the role of this cooccurrence in etiopathogenesis of infection in hemodialysed patients are required.
    The Scientific World Journal 12/2013; 2013:659204. DOI:10.1155/2013/659204 · 1.73 Impact Factor
    • "In studies conducted in Denmark, the prevalence of infection was 2.3 and 1.1 per cent in women and men, respectively9. Takahashi et al10 demonstrated the positivity rate of M. genitalium DNA in urine from asymptomatic healthy young Japanese men as 1 per cent; among female students in Japan the prevalence of M. genitalium was 2.8 per cent6. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma genitalium is a member of genital mycoplasmas, which is emerging as an important causative agent of sexually transmitted infections both in males and females. The advent of polymerase chain reaction and other molecular methods have made studies on M. genitalium more feasible, which is otherwise a difficult organism to isolate. Besides Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium is now an important and established cause of non gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men, more so in persistent and recurrent NGU. Multiple studies have also shown a positive association of M. genitalium with mucopurulent cervicitis and vaginal discharge in females as well. The evidences for M. genitalium pelvic inflammatory diseases and infertility are quite convincing and indicate that this organism has potential to cause ascending infection. Lack of clear association with M. genitalium has been reported for bacterial vaginosis and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Diagnosis of M. genitalium infections is performed exclusively using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), owing to poor or slow growth of bacterium in culture. Although there are no guidelines available regarding treatment, macrolide group of antimicrobials appear to be more effective than tetracyclines. The present review provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management of sexually transmitted infections due to M. genitalium.
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 12/2012; 136(6):942-55. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    • "Recent studies report varying prevalence estimates for MG in women; 0.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]:0.4, 1.6) among 18-27 year old sexually-active women in the US [9]; 2.3% (95% CI:1.3, 3.2) in 21-23 year old women Denmark [10]; and 3.4% (95% CI:2.7, 4.3) in sexually-active students in the UK [11]. However, differences in the type of specimens (urine or swabs) and if applicable, how the specimens were stored may contribute to these differences in prevalence [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Differences in the determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis ('chlamydia') and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) genital infection in women are not well understood. A cohort study of 16 to 25 year old Australian women recruited from primary health care clinics, aimed to determine chlamydia and MG prevalence and incidence. Vaginal swabs collected at recruitment were used to measure chlamydia and MG prevalence, organism-load and chlamydia-serovar a cross-sectional analysis undertaken on the baseline results is presented here. Of 1116 participants, chlamydia prevalence was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.9, 7.0) (n = 55) and MG prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3) (n = 27). Differences in the determinants were found - chlamydia not MG, was associated with younger age [AOR:0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)] and recent antibiotic use [AOR:0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.0)], and MG not chlamydia was associated with symptoms [AOR:2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 4.0)]. Having two or more partners in last 12 months was more strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:6.4 (95% CI: 3.6, 11.3)] than MG [AOR:2.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 4.6)] but unprotected sex with three or more partners was less strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:3.1 (95%CI: 1.0, 9.5)] than MG [AOR:16.6 (95%CI: 2.0, 138.0)]. Median organism load for MG was 100 times lower (5.7 × 104/swab) than chlamydia (5.6 × 106/swab) (p < 0.01) and not associated with age or symptoms for chlamydia or MG. These results demonstrate significant chlamydia and MG prevalence in Australian women, and suggest that the differences in strengths of association between numbers of sexual partners and unprotected sex and chlamydia and MG might be due to differences in the transmission dynamics between these infections.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 02/2011; 11(1):35. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-11-35 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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