The Role of Nutrients in Bone Health, from A to Z

Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition (Impact Factor: 5.18). 02/2006; 46(8):621-8. DOI: 10.1080/10408390500466174
Source: PubMed


Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, affecting millions of individuals. Dietary intake is an important modifiable factor for bone health. Inadequate intake of nutrients important to bone increases the risk for bone loss and subsequent osteoporosis. The process of bone formation requires an adequate and constant supply of nutrients, such as calcium, protein, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D, potassium, and fluoride. However, there are several other vitamins and minerals needed for metabolic processes related to bone, including manganese, copper, boron, iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin K, vitamin C, and the B vitamins. Although the recommended levels of nutrients traditionally related to bone were aimed to promote bone mass and strength, the recommended levels of the other nutrients that also influence bone were set on different parameters, and may not be optimal for bone health, in view of recent epidemiological studies and clinical trials.

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Available from: Cristina Palacios, Dec 12, 2013
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    • "Adequate diet and physical activity throughout life could help achieve one's full genetic potential in peak bone mass, and reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis later in life [7] [8] [9]. Calcium and other minerals, such as magnesium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese are important components of an adequate diet. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Norwegian population has among the highest hip fracture rates in the world. The incidence varies geographically, also within Norway. Calcium in drinking water has been found to be beneficially associated with bone health in some studies, but not in all. In most previous studies, other minerals in water have not been taken into account. Trace minerals, for which drinking water can be an important source and even fulfill the daily nutritional requirement, could act as effect-modifiers in the association between calcium and hip fracture risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between calcium in drinking water and hip fracture, and whether other water minerals modified this association. A survey of trace metals in 429 waterworks, supplying 64% of the population in Norway, was linked geographically to the home addresses of patients with incident hip fractures (1994-2000). Drinking water mineral concentrations were divided into "low" (below and equal waterworks average) and "high" (above waterworks average). Poisson regression models were fitted, and all incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were adjusted for age, geographic region, urbanization degree, type of water source, and pH of the water. Effect modifications were examined by stratification, and interactions between calcium and magnesium, copper, zinc, iron and manganese were tested both on the multiplicative and the additive scale. Analyses were stratified on gender. Among those supplied from the 429 waterworks (2,110,916 person-years in men and 2,397,217 person-years in women), 5,433 men and 13,493 women aged 50-85 years suffered a hip fracture during 1994-2000. Compared to low calcium in drinking water, a high level was associated with a 15% lower hip fracture risk in men (IRR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.91) but no significant difference was found in women (IRR=0.98, 95%CI: 0.93-1.02). There was interaction between calcium and copper on hip fracture risk in men (p=0.051); the association between calcium and hip fracture risk was stronger when the copper concentration in water was high (IRR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.78) as opposed to when it was low (IRR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.94). This pattern persisted also after including potential confounding factors and other minerals in the model. No similar variation in risk was found in women. In this large, prospective population study covering two thirds of the Norwegian population and comprising 19,000 hip fractures, we found an inverse association between calcium in drinking water and hip fracture risk in men. The association was stronger when the copper concentration in the water was high. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 07/2015; 81. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.07.020 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    • "Beyond an evident significance of calcium-phosphate in bone turnover, the role of micronutrients and elements, i.e., iron, magnesium, manganese, selenium, zinc, and copper is also well known in bone metabolism [34–38]. Trace elements, in particular zinc and copper, are actively participating in enzymatic systems responsible for bone matrix turnover [39]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The study evaluated if men and women with severe tooth wear were at increased risk of general bone loss. Enamel biopsies obtained from 50 subjects aged 47.5 ± 5 years showed decreased copper content, which was associated with reduced spine bone mineral density, suggesting deficits of this trace element contributing to bone demineralization, enamel attrition, and deteriorated quality of mineralized tissues. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations between enamel trace minerals and bone mineral density (BMD) in severe tooth wear. We hypothesized that similar factors contributed to both the excessive abrasion of dental enamel and reduced BMD in subjects with tooth wear. Fifty patients aged 47.5 ± 5 years with severe tooth wear and 20 age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy volunteers with normal dental status were studied regarding dietary intakes of trace elements, serum and salivary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and calcium (Ca) concentrations, and serum PTH, osteocalcin, and hydroxyvitamin D levels. Tooth wear was determined using clinical examination based on standard protocol according to Smith and Knight. In all subjects, acid biopsies of the maxillary central incisors were carried out to assess mineral composition of the enamel. Atomic absorption spectroscopy with an air/acetylene flame was used to measure Ca and Zn, and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze Cu content. BMD was examined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Tooth wear patients had reduced lumbar spine, but not femoral, BMD relative to controls (p < 0.001). No differences were found in enamel Ca concentration and Zn content was slightly higher in tooth wear patients than in controls whereas Cu content was significantly decreased in the patients: 19.59 ± 16.4 vs 36.86 ± 26.1 μg/l (p = 0.01) despite similar levels of Cu in serum and saliva. The differences were independent of serum 25-OH-D, osteocalcin concentrations or PTH either. Severe tooth wear is associated with reduced spinal BMD. Enamel in adult individuals with severe tooth wear is low in copper content. Therefore, further work is needed to determine whether copper plays a role in bone pathophysiology in these patients.
    Osteoporosis International 06/2013; 25(2). DOI:10.1007/s00198-013-2410-x · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    • "But bone stiffness also depends on intrinsic material properties (i.e., those independent of size and shape) such as porosity, level of mineralization, crystal size, and properties derived from the organic phase of bone [3], [4]. The most widely studied intrinsic mechanical properties include: Young’s modulus of elasticity or stiffness (E), bending strength (force required to break a sample of bone), and work to fracture (the work required to produce such break) [4], [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies in wild animals have assessed changes in mineral profile in long bones and their implications for mechanical properties. We examined the effect of two diets differing in mineral content on the composition and mechanical properties of femora from two groups each with 13 free-ranging red deer hinds. Contents of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, B and Sr, Young's modulus of elasticity (E), bending strength and work of fracture were assessed in the proximal part of the diaphysis (PD) and the mid-diaphysis (MD). Whole body measures were also recorded on the hinds. Compared to animals on control diets, those on supplemented diets increased live weight by 6.5 kg and their kidney fat index (KFI), but not carcass weight, body or organ size, femur size or cortical thickness. Supplemental feeding increased Mn content of bone by 23%, Cu by 9% and Zn by 6%. These differences showed a mean fourfold greater content of these minerals in supplemental diet, whereas femora did not reflect a 5.4 times greater content of major minerals (Na and P) in the diet. Lower content of B and Sr in supplemented diet also reduced femur B by 14% and Sr by 5%. There was a subtle effect of diet only on E and none on other mechanical properties. Thus, greater availability of microminerals but not major minerals in the diet is reflected in bone composition even before marked body effects, bone macro-structure or its mechanical properties are affected.
    PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e65461. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0065461 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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