An investigation of stigma in individuals receiving treatment for substance abuse. Addictive Behaviors, 32(7), 1331-1346

Department of Psychology, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada, United States
Addictive Behaviors (Impact Factor: 2.76). 08/2007; 32(7):1331-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.09.008
Source: PubMed


This study examined the impact of stigma on patients in substance abuse treatment. Patients (N=197) from fifteen residential and outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities completed a survey focused on their experiences with stigma as well as other measures of drug use and functioning. Participants reported experiencing fairly high levels of enacted, perceived, and self-stigma. Data supported the idea that the current treatment system may actually stigmatize people in recovery in that people with more prior episodes of treatment reported a greater frequency of stigma-related rejection, even after controlling for current functioning and demographic variables. Intravenous drug users, compared to non-IV users, reported more perceived stigma as well as more often using secrecy as a method of coping. Those who were involved with the legal system reported less stigma than those without legal troubles. Higher levels of secrecy coping were associated with a number of indicators of poor functioning as well as recent employment problems. Finally, the patterns of findings supported the idea that perceived stigma, enacted stigma, and self-stigma are conceptually distinct dimensions.

Download full-text


Available from: Thomas Waltz,
  • Source
    • "2011; Van Boekel, Brouwers, Van Weeghel, & Garretsen, 2013b). It was also found that experiences of rejection and anticipation of discrimination were prevalent among individuals in treatment for SUDs (Luoma et al., 2007). The stigma attached to SUDs acts upon different life domains and can have adverse consequences for the quality of life of individuals and their life opportunities such as employment or housing (Alonso et al., 2009; Link & Phelan, 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are among the most severely stigmatised conditions; however, little is known about the nature of these stigmatising attitudes. Aims: To assess and compare stigmatising attitudes towards persons with SUDs among different stakeholders: general public, general practitioners (GPs), mental health and addiction specialists, and clients in treatment for substance abuse. Methods: Cross-sectional study (N=3,326) in which stereotypical beliefs, attribution beliefs (e.g. perceptions about controllability and responsibility for having an addiction), social distance and expectations about rehabilitation opportunities for individuals with substance use disorders were assessed and compared between stakeholders. Results: Individuals with substance use disorders elicited great social distance across all stakeholders. Stereotypical beliefs were not different between stakeholders, whereas attribution beliefs were more diverse. Considering social distance and expectations about rehabilitation opportunities, the general public was most pessimistic, followed by GPs, mental health and addiction specialists, and clients. Stereotypical and attribution beliefs, as well as age, gender and socially desirable answering, were not associated with social distance across all stakeholders. Conclusion: The general public and GPs expressed more social distance and were more negative in their expectations about rehabilitation opportunities, compared to mental health and addiction specialists and clients. Although stigmatising attitudes were prevalent across all groups, no striking differences were found between stakeholders.
    International Journal of Social Psychiatry 08/2015; 61(6):539-549. DOI:10.1177/0020764014562051 · 1.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • " drug - use risk assessments . Higher mean HIV stigma scores in those incarcerated in a nar - cotics prison , those with opioid disorders , and those seeking help to cut back or stop using drugs ( e . g . , drug treatment ) suggested that previous experiences with addiction stigma , which were associated with participation in addiction treatment ( Luoma et al . , 2007 ) , may alter the experience of HIV stigma . Crim - inalization of drug use in Indonesia has fueled negative addiction stereotypes , isolated PWID , and prevented them from reaching health and harm - reduction ser - vices ( Mesquita et al . , 2007 ) . Addiction stereotypes , moreover , thwart methadone maintenance therapy expansion effo"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Indonesia, the syndemic nature of HIV, drug use, and incarceration may influence experiences of stigma for HIV-infected prisoners. This mixed-method study explores HIV stigma in prisoners living with HIV in Indonesia. Randomly selected male HIV-infected prisoners (n = 102) from two large prisons in Jakarta completed in-depth interviews and a structured HIV stigma survey. Quantitative results found four groups of HIV-infected prisoners with significantly higher HIV stigma levels, including those: (a) with drug-related offenses, (b) seeking help to decrease drug use, (c) diagnosed with HIV before the current incarceration, and (d) who had not disclosed their HIV status to family members or friends. Qualitative results highlighted the prominent role of HIV stigma in decisions to disclose HIV status to family members, partners, and other prisoners. Interventions should address HIV stigma in HIV-infected prisoners in Indonesia to achieve HIV treatment as prevention goals. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC 07/2015; 26(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jana.2015.07.006 · 1.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Several studies indicated that drug use disorders are more highly stigmatized than other health conditions [6] [8]. Furthermore, social stigma was reported to be a significant barrier for accessing health care and substance use treatment services [5] [7] [8] [9] [10]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As drug abuse carries a societal stigma, patients do not often report their history of drug abuse to the healthcare providers. However, drug abuse is highly co-morbid with a host of other health problems such as psychiatric disorders and skin diseases, and majority of individuals with drug use disorders seek treatment in the first place for other problems. Therefore, it is very important for physicians to be aware of clinical signs and symptoms of drug use. Recently diagnostic value of dermatologic tissue alterations associated with drug abuse has become a very particular interest because skin changes were reported to be the earliest noticeable consequence of drug abuse prompting earlier intervention and treatment. Although hair is an annex of skin, alterations on hair structure due to drug use have not been demonstrated. This study represents the first report on ultra-structural hair alterations of drug abusers. We have investigated ultra-structure of the hair samples obtained from 6 cocaine, 6 heroin, 7 cannabis and 4 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) abusers by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis of hair samples gave us drug-specific discriminating alterations. We suggest that results of this study will make a noteworthy contribution to cutaneous alterations associated with drug abuse which are regarded as the earliest clinical manifestations, and this SEM approach is a very specific and effective tool in the detection of abuse of respective drugs, leading early treatment.
    International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 06/2015; 8(6):8803-8811. · 1.28 Impact Factor
Show more