Psychologic stress, reduced NK cell activity, and cytokine dysregulation in women experiencing diagnostic breast biopsy.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate a woman's psychological and immunological response to breast biopsy before and after the procedure. Women were enrolled into the study when notified of the need for breast biopsy. Psychological and immunological assessments were made at enrollment, on the day of breast biopsy, as well as 1 month and 4 months after notification of biopsy results. Psychological assessments demonstrated that perceived stress, anxiety, and mood disturbance were heightened before biopsy and remained elevated after biopsy regardless of the diagnosis. Immunologically, the women exhibited reduced natural killer cell activity and INF gamma production before biopsy with reductions significant 1 month after the procedure. In contrast, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 production were increased before and after the procedure with most significant increases prior to the procedure and continuing 1 month after the procedure. These results demonstrate that undergoing biopsy of the breast for cancer diagnosis is an emotional experience, characterized by increased perceived stress, anxiety, and mood disturbance. This emotional distress is accompanied by reduced NK cell activity and cytokine dysregulation. The psychological and immunological impact of breast biopsy is not transient, but persists well beyond the actual experience of the biopsy procedure. Noteworthy is the observation that women with benign or malignant biopsy results experienced similar psycho-immune consequences. Hence, these observations are of relevance not only to women diagnosed with malignancy, who face the challenges of cancer treatment and adaptation to illness, but also to women with benign biopsy findings.
Article: Psychiatric disorder associated with vacuum-assisted breast biopsy clip placement: a case report.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy is a minimally invasive technique that has been used increasingly in the treatment of mammographically detected, non-palpable breast lesions. Clip placement at the biopsy site is standard practice after vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. We present the case of a 62-year-old woman with suspicious microcalcifications in her left breast. The patient was informed about vacuum-assisted breast biopsy, including clip placement. During the course of taking the patient's history, she communicated excellently, her demeanor was normal, she disclosed no intake of psychiatric medication and had not been diagnosed with any psychiatric disorders. Subsequently, the patient underwent vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (11 G) under local anesthesia. A clip was placed at the biopsy site. The pathological diagnosis was of sclerosing adenosis. At the 6-month mammographic follow-up, the radiologist mentioned the existence of the metallic clip in her breast. Subsequently, the woman presented complaining about "being spied [upon] by an implanted clip in [her] breast" and repeatedly requested the removal of the clip. The patient was referred to the specialized psychiatrist of our breast unit for evaluation. The Mental State Examination found that systematized paranoid ideas of persecutory type dominated her daily routines. At the time, she believed that the implanted clip was one of several pieces of equipment being used to keep her under surveillance, the other equipment being her telephone, cameras and television. Quite surprisingly, she had never had a consultation with a mental health professional. The patient appeared depressed and her insight into her condition was impaired. The prevalent diagnosis was schizotypal disorder, whereas the differential diagnosis comprised delusional disorder of persecutory type, affective disorder with psychotic features or comorbid delusional disorder with major depression. This is the first report of a psychiatric disorder being brought to the fore using a vacuum-assisted breast biopsy clip. Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy, and breast biopsy in general, represent a significant experience, encompassing anxiety and pain; it may thus aggravate psychiatric conditions. Apart from these well-established factors, other aspects, such as the clip, may occasionally become significant. In a modern breast unit, the evaluation of patients should be multidisciplinary. A psychiatrist may be needed for optimal management of anxiety-related issues, as well as for the detection of psychiatric disorders.Journal of Medical Case Reports 11/2008; 2:332.
Article: Daily intake of Lactobacillus casei Shirota increases natural killer cell activity in smokers.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dietary probiotics supplementation exerts beneficial health effects. Since cigarette smoking reduces natural killer (NK) activity, we evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) intake on NK cytotoxic activity in male smokers. The double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study was conducted on seventy-two healthy Italian blue-collar male smokers randomly divided for daily intake of LcS powder or placebo. Before and after 3 weeks of intake, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and NK activity and CD16⁺ cells' number were assessed. Daily LcS intake for 3 weeks significantly increased NK activity (P < 0.001). The increase in NK activity was paralleled by an increase in CD16⁺ cells (P < 0.001). Before intake, NK cytotoxic activity inversely correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked (R - 0.064). LcS intake prevented the smoke-dependent expected NK activity reduction. The analysis of the distribution of changes in smoke-adjusted NK activity demonstrated that the positive variations were significantly associated with LcS intake, while the negative variations were associated with placebo intake (median value of distributions of differences, 20.98 lytic unit (LU)/10⁷ cells for LcS v. - 4.38 LU/10⁷ cells for placebo, P = 0.039). In conclusion, 3 weeks of daily LcS intake in Italian male smokers was associated with a higher increase in cytotoxic activity and CD16⁺ cells' number in comparison to the placebo intake group.The British journal of nutrition 12/2011; 108(2):308-14. · 3.45 Impact Factor