Partial cure of established disease in an animal model of metachromatic leukodystrophy after intracerebral adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Inserm U745, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Université ParisV, Paris, France.
Gene Therapy (Impact Factor: 4.2). 04/2007; 14(5):405-14. DOI: 10.1038/
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by genetic deficiency of arylsulfatase A (ARSA) enzyme. Failure in catalyzing the degradation of its major substrate, sulfatide (Sulf), in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells leads to severe demyelination in the peripheral (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS), and early death of MLD patients. The ARSA knockout mice develop a disease that resembles MLD but is milder, without significant demyelination in the PNS and CNS. We showed that adeno-associated virus serotype 5-mediated gene transfer in the brain of ARSA knockout mice reverses Sulf storage and prevents neuropathological abnormalities and neuromotor disabilities when vector injections are performed at a pre-symptomatic stage of disease. Direct injection of viral particles into the brain of ARSA knockout mice at a symptomatic stage results in sustained expression of ARSA, prevention of Sulf storage and neuropathological abnormalities. Despite these significant corrections, the treated mice continue to develop neuromotor disability. We show that more subtle biochemical abnormalities involving gangliosides and galactocerebroside are in fact not corrected.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), a fatal disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase A (ARSA), is associated with an accumulation of sulfatides, causing widespread demyelination in both central and peripheral nervous systems. On the basis of prior studies demonstrating that adeno-associated virus AAVrh.10 can mediate widespread distribution in the CNS of a secreted lysosomal transgene, and as a prelude to human trials, we comparatively assessed the optimal CNS delivery route of an AAVrh.10 vector encoding human ARSA in a large animal model for broadest distribution of ARSA enzyme. Five routes were tested (each total dose, 1.5×10(12) genome copies of AAVrh.10hARSA-FLAG): (1) delivery to white matter centrum ovale; (2) deep gray matter delivery (putamen, thalamus, and caudate) plus overlying white matter; (3) convection-enhanced delivery to same deep gray matter locations; (4) lateral cerebral ventricle; and (5) intraarterial delivery with hyperosmotic mannitol to the middle cerebral artery. After 13 weeks, the distribution of ARSA activity subsequent to each of the three direct intraparenchymal administration routes was significantly higher than in phosphate-buffered saline-administered controls, but administration by the intraventricular and intraarterial routes failed to demonstrate measurable levels above controls. Immunohistochemical staining in the cortex, white matter, deep gray matter of the striatum, thalamus, choroid plexus, and spinal cord dorsal root ganglions confirmed these results. Of the five routes studied, administration to the white matter generated the broadest distribution of ARSA, with 80% of the brain displaying more than a therapeutic (10%) increase in ARSA activity above PBS controls. No significant toxicity was observed with any delivery route as measured by safety parameters, although some inflammatory changes were seen by histopathology. We conclude that AAVrh.10-mediated delivery of ARSA via CNS administration into the white matter is likely to be safe and yields the widest distribution of ARSA, making it the most suitable route of vector delivery.
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