Regional change in brain morphometry in schizophrenia associated with antipsychotic treatment

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Psychiatry, Chapel Hill, NC 27510-7160, USA.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.47). 01/2007; 148(2-3):121-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2006.04.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this pilot study was to: (1) determine if regional brain volume change occurs in schizophrenia patients during very short periods of withdrawal from, or stable treatment with, antipsychotics, and; (2) compare results of region-of-interest (ROI) to voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods. In two small groups of schizophrenic inpatients, magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and after antipsychotic withdrawal, and at two time points during stable chronic antipsychotic treatment. Regional brain volumes were measured using ROI methods. Grey matter volume was measured with VBM. The medication withdrawal group showed no effect of treatment state or antipsychotic type on regional brain volumes with ROI analysis, but effects of both treatment state and antipsychotic type on grey matter volume were observed with VBM in right middle frontal, right medial frontal, right and left superior frontal, right cingulate, and right superior temporal gyrii as well as in the right and left hippocampal gyrii. The chronic stable treatment group showed an effect of time on right caudate, left hippocampal, and total cerebrospinal fluid volumes with ROI analysis, while effects of both time and antipsychotic type were observed with VBM on grey matter volume in the left superior temporal lobe. No findings survived correction for multiple comparisons. A positive correlation between regional volume change and emerging psychopathology was demonstrated using ROI methods in the medication withdrawal group. Treatment state and emergent symptoms in schizophrenia patients were associated with regional volume change over very short time periods. Longitudinal regional brain volume change in schizophrenia patients is likely physiologic and therefore potentially reversible.

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    • "measures of CSP and may influence morphological alterations in brain regions related to CSP (Dickey et al., 2007; Chakos et al., 2005; McClure et al., 2006; Girgis et al., 2006), we examined the pattern of use of antipsychotics between groups. Fukuzako et al. (1996) found that higher doses of neuroleptics were used in patients of schizophrenia who had CSP. "
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    ABSTRACT: Like prevalence of abnormal cavum septum pellucidum in patients of schizophrenia remains controversial, its role in clinical outcome, duration of illness and effect on treatment remains less understood as well. Our study examined clinical correlates of enlarged cavum septum pellucidum in schizophrenia. A total of 139 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia during the year 2012 and 2013 were taken for the study. We compared them in respect to the presence and absence of enlarged cavum septum pellucidum. We found 16 patients with enlarged cavum septum pellucidum and were compared with those without enlarged cavum septum pellucidum for socio-demographic and clinical variables. We also correlated these clinical variables with dimension of cavum septum pellucidum. We found statistically significant increased current age and duration of illness in patients with enlarged cavum septum pellucidum. The implications of these findings are discussed with possible confounding effect of current age on neuroimaging. No meaningful correlation was found. No difference in clinical variables was found. Retrospective design and use of computed tomography were limitation of our study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Asian Journal of Psychiatry 06/2015; 15:21-24. DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2015.04.008
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    • "Treatment with olanzapine and risperidone has been associated with larger hippocampal volumes in patients with schizophrenia, compared to patients treated with haloperidol in a cross-sectional study [50]. Conversely, two longitudinal neuroimaging studies found no relationship between type of antipsychotic medication and hippocampal volume change [51], [52]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the hippocampus, which have been suggested to play an important role in the formation and emergence of schizophrenia syndrome. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit significant bilateral hippocampal volume reduction and progressive hippocampal volume decrease in first-episode patients with schizophrenia has been shown in many neuroimaging studies. Dysfunction of the neurotrophic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The initiation of antipsychotic medication alters the levels of serum Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels. However it is unclear whether treatment with antipsychotics is associated with alterations of hippocampal volume and BDNF levels. In the present longitudinal study we investigated the association between serum BDNF levels and hippocampal volumes in a sample of fourteen first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia (FEP). MRI scans, BDNF and clinical measurements were performed twice: at baseline before the initiation of antipsychotic treatment and 8 months later, while the patients were receiving monotherapy with second generation antipsychotics (SGAs). We found that left hippocampal volume was decreased (corrected left HV [t = 2.977, df = 13, p = .011] at follow-up; We also found that the higher the BDNF levels change the higher were the differences of corrected left hippocampus after 8 months of treatment with atypical antipsychotics (Pearson r = 0.597, p = 0.024). The association of BDNF with hippocampal volume alterations in schizophrenia merits further investigation and replication in larger longitudinal studies.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e87997. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0087997 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Contrary to that, atypical antipsychotics showed significant increase in left HV as compared to the typical antipsychotics (McClure et al., 2006) and atypical antipsychotics rather than haloperidol may protect against HV reduction (Chakos et al., 2005). Consistently, schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotics showed gray matter volumetric reductions in medial temporal regions (Smieskova et al., 2009). "
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