Background: There are a variety of surgical treatments for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Purpose: Review the indications and techniques for multilevel cervical corpectomy in the treatment of CSM. Conclusion: Cervical corpectomy is effective and relatively safe for the treatment of a variety of diseases of the cervical spine. Indications, surgical considerations, operative positioning, surgical method, and complications avoidance are discussed as a guide to effectively performing this procedure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vertebral body reconstruction after corpectomy has become a common surgical procedure. The authors describe a prospectively followed case series of patients treated with expandable cages for various indications.
Sixty patients underwent single or multilevel corpectomy for degenerative stenosis (13 patients), herniated disc (7 patients), deformity (14 patients), traumatic fracture (3 patients), infection (1 patient), or tumor (22 patients). Six different expandable vertebral body systems were used in the cervical spine (41 patients), thoracic spine (15 patients), and lumbar spine (4 patients). All patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically.
Thirty-nine patients underwent single-level corpectomy, 18 patients underwent two-level corpectomy, and 3 patients underwent three-level corpectomy. Anterior reconstruction alone was performed in 30 patients; circumferential reconstruction was performed in 30 patients, 9 of whom underwent reconstruction through a posterior approach only. At the time of the final follow-up examination (mean, 9 mo), the Nurick grade improved significantly. Ninety-five percent of the patients maintained or improved their Frankel score and 67% had good clinical results. The regional angulation was corrected significantly (4.0 +/- 9.0 degrees, P = 0.002), and the segment height increased significantly (3.5 +/- 8.0 mm, P = 0.002). Bony fusion was achieved in 93% of the cases. Subsidence was documented in nearly half of the patients (1.4 +/- 2.0 mm) and was reduced after circumferential fusion (0.9 +/- 1.9 mm, P = 0.08). Eighteen patients (30%) had complications and 12 patients (20%) underwent revision surgery.
Expandable vertebral body replacement systems can provide solid anterior column constructs with restoration of height and sagittal alignment. Favorable clinical outcome was shown in most patients, although the complication and reoperation rates are rather high.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, information on cervical corpectomy complication rates has been obtained from retrospective analysis of single-institution data. The aim of this study was to report 30-day mortality and complication rates after cervical corpectomy using multicenter prospective data from the Veterans Affairs National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database.
The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to identify 1560 patients who underwent cervical corpectomy in United States Veterans Affairs hospitals from 1997 to 2006. Multivariate analysis was performed to analyze the effects of patient and hospital characteristics on morbidity and mortality rates.
A total of 1560 patients underwent corpectomy, with an overall in-hospital mortality rate of 1.6%, a complication rate of 18.4%, and a mean length of stay of 6 days. Multivariate analysis identified age older than 80 years (odds ratio [OR], 21.24), history of Type 1 diabetes (OR, 2.36), American Society of Anesthesiologists class greater than 3 (OR, 6.93), and dependent functional status (OR, 3.17) as the most significant preoperative predictors of complications. Three or more corpectomy levels (OR, 2.46) and operative duration longer than 6 hours (OR, 3.45) were also found to be significant predictors of postoperative complications. Patients who underwent 3 or more levels of corpectomy had a return-to-operating room rate of 17.9% and a graft/instrumentation failure rate of 5.4% compared with those who underwent single-level corpectomy, who had rates of 6.2 and 1.87%, respectively. Patients who were returned to the operating room had significantly higher mortality rates (7.0 versus 1.2%) and accounted for 39.9% of the total number of complications. Multivariate analysis identified age, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, history of disseminated cancer, and diabetes as the most significant predictors of mortality. Patients with Type 1 diabetes had 4-fold higher mortality rates compared with patients with no history of diabetes or diet-controlled diabetes.
We have analyzed the morbidity and mortality data on the largest series of corpectomy reported to date. We have demonstrated the impact of age, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and number of operated levels on complication rates. Type 1 diabetes was established as a strong risk factor for 30-day mortality after cervical corpectomy.
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