"A large study of ART naïve HIV-infected individuals from 40 United States cities reported a prevalence of drug resistance associated mutations of 12% among chronically infected, newly diagnosed individuals . In Africa, potential contributors to the emergence and transmission of drug resistant HIV are intermittent drug supplies, inadequate patient monitoring, incorrect prescribing practices, variable adherence and the use of SD NVP in pMTCT programs , . Several surveillance studies in Africa estimate the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance to be less than 5% , , , , , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rapid scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and use of single dose Nevirapine (SD NVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT) have raised fears about the emergence of resistance to the first line antiretroviral drug regimens. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of primary drug resistance (PDR) in a cohort of young (<25 yrs) HAART-naïve HIV pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe. Whole blood was collected in EDTA for CD4 counts, viral load, serological estimation of duration of infection using the BED Calypte assay and genotyping for drug resistance. Four hundred and seventy-one women, mean age 21 years; SD: 2.1 were enrolled into the study between 2006 and 2007. Their median CD4 count was 371cells/µL; IQR: 255-511 cells/µL. Two hundred and thirty-six samples were genotyped for drug resistance. Based on the BED assay, 27% were recently infected (RI) whilst 73% had long-term infection (LTI). Median CD4 count was higher (p<0.05) in RI than in women with LTI. Only 2 women had drug resistance mutations; protease I85V and reverse transcriptase Y181C. Prevalence of PDR in Chitungwiza, 4 years after commencement of the national ART program remained below WHO threshold limit (5%). Frequency of recent infection BED testing is consistent with high HIV acquisition during pregnancy. With the scale-up of long-term ART programs, maintenance of proper prescribing practices, continuous monitoring of patients and reinforcement of adherence may prevent the acquisition and transmission of PDR.
PLoS ONE 06/2011; 6(6):e21241. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0021241 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"NVP-associated rash can be minimized by escalating the initial dose of NVP or lead-in prescription [13, 20]. Despite this intervention, rash continues to be the leading cause of NVP discontinuation [21, 22]. Use of antihistamines and/or glucocorticoids cannot prevent this adverse effect [13, 23, 24]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rash is the most common adverse effect associated with nevirapine (NVP). We aimed to develop a model and risk score for predicting NVP-associated rash among HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts.
Cross-sectional study was conducted and 383 HIV-infected patients consecutively enrolled in the study.
Of 222 patients in the training set, 116 (52.2%) were males and median (IQR) age was 35.2 (31.1-42.0) years. Median (IQR) CD4 cell count was 104 (35-225) cells/mm(3). Of these, 72 and 150 patients were in "rash" and "no rash" group, respectively. Four factors were independently associated with rash: a history of drug allergy (odds ratio (OR) 4.01, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.75-9.20, P = 0.001), body weight <55 kg. (OR 2.02, 95% CI, 1.09-3.76, p = 0.026), not receiving slow dose escalation (OR 2.00, 95% CI, 1.06-3.77, p = 0.032), and no concomitant drug(s) (OR 2.48, 95% CI, 1.32-4.64, p = 0.005). Receiver-operator characteristic analysis yielded area under the curve of 71% and the goodness-of-fit statistics was 6.48 (p = 0.840). The variables were given scores of 14, 7, 7 and 9, respectively. A cutoff >21 points defined the high risk individuals which yielded specificity and positive predictive value of 99% and 69%, respectively, with OR of 3.96 (95% CI, 1.79-8.86, p = 0.001).
A model and risk score for predicting NVP-associated rash performed well in this study population. It might be useful for predicting the risk of rash before NVP initiation among HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts.
The Open AIDS Journal 07/2009; 3(1):24-30. DOI:10.2174/1874613600903010024
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nevirapine-based therapy is associated with increased frequency of adverse events among HIV-infected pregnant women. The aim of this article was to evaluate the incidence of adverse effects in HIV-infected women who started nevirapine during pregnancy. A retrospective study was performed in our center between January 2003 and December 2006 analyzing all women prescribed nevirapine during pregnancy. Women presenting any risk factor for hepatotoxicity were excluded from the analysis. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of adverse effects, and a correlation to CD4 counts was performed. Liver function abnormality was graded according to the Division of AIDS toxicity guidelines. A total of 170 women initiated nevirapine during pregnancy, but only 133 were included in the study. Twenty-seven women (20.3%) presented adverse effects, skin rash accounting for 77.8% (21/27 women) and liver function abnormalities for 22.2% (6/27) of the cases. Baseline CD4 counts, viral loads and transaminases were similar in both groups. All nevirapine side effects were developed in less than seven weeks. Four of 31 women with CD4 counts <250 cells/microL (12.9%) and 23 of 102 women with CD4 counts > or = 250 cells/microL (22.5%) developed adverse events. All patients who experienced hepatotoxicity had pretreatment CD4 counts > or =250 cells/microL. The incidence of adverse events with nevirapine in our study was high, but most of them were cutaneous. There was no correlation between high CD4 counts and adverse events when analyzing both cutaneous and hepatic reactions; nevertheless, hepatotoxicity occurred only in pregnant women with CD4 counts > or =250 cells/microL.
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