Porter BF, Ambrus A, Storts RW.. Immunohistochemical evaluation of Mx protein expression in canine encephalitides. Vet Pathol 43: 981-987
Texas A and M University, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Pathobiology, College Station, TX 77843-4467, USA. Veterinary Pathology
(Impact Factor: 1.87).
12/2006; 43(6):981-7. DOI: 10.1354/vp.43-6-981
Mx proteins are a group of interferon-induced GTPases whose expression has been demonstrated in a number of human viral infections and in some idiopathic inflammatory diseases. In this study, the expression of Mx protein was evaluated in known viral, nonviral, and idiopathic encephalitides in the dog via immunohistochemistry using an antibody against human MxA. All 12 cases of confirmed viral encephalitis, including 7 cases of canine distemper, 4 cases of canine herpesvirus, and 1 case of rabies, were Mx positive. In canine distemper cases, staining was particularly strong and a variety of cell types were positive, including astrocytes, macrophages/microglia, and neurons. Immunoreactivity for Mx protein was evident in a few cases of nonviral infectious encephalitis, including neosporosis (1/1), Chagas disease (2/3), aspergillosis (1/2), and encephalitozoonosis (1/1). Consistent staining was observed in most cases of idiopathic encephalitis, including granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (7/7), necrotizing meningoencephalitis of pug dogs (6/7), and necrotizing encephalitis of the Yorkshire Terrier (3/3) and Maltese (1/1) breeds. Mx staining was negative in 5 normal dog brains; 3 cases of cryptococcosis; and single cases of blastomycosis, protothecosis, and bacterial meningitis.
Available from: Maxime Galan
- "Immunopathological costs may also be involved in this spatial immunoheterogeneity. TNF-a and Mx2 are costly immune effectors inducing collateral damage when present at high concentration (Li and Youssoufian, 1997; Wenzel et al., 2005; Porter et al., 2006; Bradley, 2008). Lower levels of expression of the genes encoding these molecules may therefore be considered to constitute a tolerance mechanism, an adaptive process limiting pathologies at the expense of pathogen growth or reproduction (Raberg et al., 2009). "
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ABSTRACT: Heterogeneity in environmental conditions helps to maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity in ecosystems. As such, it may explain why the capacity of animals to mount immune responses is highly variable. The quality of habitat patches, in terms of resources, parasitism, predation and habitat fragmentation may, for example, trigger trade-offs ultimately affecting the investment of individuals in various immunological pathways. We described spatial immunoheterogeneity in bank vole populations with respect to landscape features and co-infection. We focused on the consequences of this heterogeneity for the risk of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection. We assessed the expression of the Tnf-α and Mx2 genes and demonstrated a negative correlation between PUUV load and the expression of these immune genes in bank voles. Habitat heterogeneity was partly associated with differences in the expression of these genes. Levels of Mx2 were lower in large forests than in fragmented forests, possibly due to differences in parasite communities. We previously highlighted the positive association between infection with Heligmosomum mixtum and infection with PUUV. We found that Tnf-α was more strongly expressed in voles infected with PUUV than in uninfected voles or in voles co-infected with the nematode H. mixtum and PUUV. H. mixtum may limit the capacity of the vole to develop proinflammatory responses. This effect may increase the risk of PUUV infection and replication in host cells. Overall, our results suggest that close interactions between landscape features, co-infection and immune gene expression may shape PUUV epidemiology.Heredity advance online publication, 23 October 2013; doi:10.1038/hdy.2013.103.
Heredity 10/2013; 112(3). DOI:10.1038/hdy.2013.103 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although the histopathologic features of necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) have been described previously, little information is available concerning the signalment, geographic distribution, seasonal onset, treatment, and survival of affected dogs.
Sixty Pugs with NME and 14 contemporaneous control Pugs with other intracranial diseases (non-NME group).
Pugs that were euthanized or died because of intracranial disease were prospectively obtained. All dogs had necropsy, histopathology, and testing for various infectious diseases and were subsequently divided into NME and non-NME groups. Signalment, geographic distribution, seasonal onset, treatment, and survival were compared between groups.
In Pugs with NME, median age at onset of clinical signs was 18 months (range, 4-113 months). A greater proportion of female dogs were present in the NME group (40/60) compared with the control group (6/14). Pugs with NME had a significantly lower mean weight (7.81 kg) than control Pugs (9.79 kg) (P= .012). Mean survival in Pugs with NME was 93 days (range, 1-680 days), with dogs receiving any form of treatment living significantly longer than those that were not treated (P= .003). Anticonvulsive drugs were the only treatment significantly associated with longer survival (P= .003).
NME appears to be a common cause of intracranial signs in Pugs, based on the high proportion of NME dogs reported in this population. Pugs with NME are most commonly young adult female dogs. Although further investigation is needed to determine the optimal treatment of NME, anticonvulsive drugs appear to beneficially affect duration of survival.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 06/2008; 22(4):961-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0137.x · 1.88 Impact Factor
Available from: bellalaruefoundation.com
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ABSTRACT: Granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis, necrotizing meningoencephalitis, and necrotizing leukoencephalitis are common inflammatory conditions of the canine central nervous system. Although each disease has unique histopathological features, these canine disorders collectively seem to be aberrant immune responses directed against the central nervous system. A review of the neurological signs and general neurodiagnostic approach to canine meningoencephalitis is followed by an overview of the specific clinical and neuropathological features of granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis, necrotizing meningoencephalitis, and necrotizing leukoencephalitis. The aetiopathogenesis of each disorder is explored including potential genetic, immunological, and environmental factors along with the current and prospective immunomodulatory therapies for meningoencephalitis.
Journal of Small Animal Practice 10/2009; 51(3):138-49. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2009.00823.x · 1.09 Impact Factor
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