Immunohistochemical evaluation of Mx protein expression in canine encephalitides
ABSTRACT Mx proteins are a group of interferon-induced GTPases whose expression has been demonstrated in a number of human viral infections and in some idiopathic inflammatory diseases. In this study, the expression of Mx protein was evaluated in known viral, nonviral, and idiopathic encephalitides in the dog via immunohistochemistry using an antibody against human MxA. All 12 cases of confirmed viral encephalitis, including 7 cases of canine distemper, 4 cases of canine herpesvirus, and 1 case of rabies, were Mx positive. In canine distemper cases, staining was particularly strong and a variety of cell types were positive, including astrocytes, macrophages/microglia, and neurons. Immunoreactivity for Mx protein was evident in a few cases of nonviral infectious encephalitis, including neosporosis (1/1), Chagas disease (2/3), aspergillosis (1/2), and encephalitozoonosis (1/1). Consistent staining was observed in most cases of idiopathic encephalitis, including granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (7/7), necrotizing meningoencephalitis of pug dogs (6/7), and necrotizing encephalitis of the Yorkshire Terrier (3/3) and Maltese (1/1) breeds. Mx staining was negative in 5 normal dog brains; 3 cases of cryptococcosis; and single cases of blastomycosis, protothecosis, and bacterial meningitis.
SourceAvailable from: Nathalie Charbonnel[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We reviewed the associations of immunity-related genes with susceptibility of humans and rodents to hantaviruses, and with severity of hantaviral diseases in humans. Several class I and class II HLA haplotypes were linked with severe or benign hantavirus infections, and these haplotypes varied among localities and hantaviruses. The polymorphism of other immunity-related genes including the C4A gene and a high-producing genotype of TNF gene associated with severe PUUV infection. Additional genes that may contribute to disease or to PUUV infection severity include non-carriage of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) allele 2 and IL-1β (-511) allele 2, polymorphisms of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and platelet GP1a. In addition, immunogenetic studies have been conducted to identify mechanisms that could be linked with the persistence/clearance of hantaviruses in reservoirs. Persistence was associated during experimental infections with an upregulation of anti-inflammatory responses. Using natural rodent population samples, polymorphisms and/or expression levels of several genes have been analyzed. These genes were selected based on the literature of rodent or human/hantavirus interactions (some Mhc class II genes, Tnf promoter, and genes encoding the proteins TLR4, TLR7, Mx2 and β3 integrin). The comparison of genetic differentiation estimated between bank vole populations sampled over Europe, at neutral and candidate genes, has allowed to evidence signatures of selection for Tnf, Mx2 and the Drb Mhc class II genes. Altogether, these results corroborated the hypothesis of an evolution of tolerance strategies in rodents. We finally discuss the importance of these results from the medical and epidemiological perspectives.Viruses 05/2014; 6(5):2214-2241. DOI:10.3390/v6052214 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heterogeneity in environmental conditions helps to maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity in ecosystems. As such, it may explain why the capacity of animals to mount immune responses is highly variable. The quality of habitat patches, in terms of resources, parasitism, predation and habitat fragmentation may, for example, trigger trade-offs ultimately affecting the investment of individuals in various immunological pathways. We described spatial immunoheterogeneity in bank vole populations with respect to landscape features and co-infection. We focused on the consequences of this heterogeneity for the risk of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection. We assessed the expression of the Tnf-α and Mx2 genes and demonstrated a negative correlation between PUUV load and the expression of these immune genes in bank voles. Habitat heterogeneity was partly associated with differences in the expression of these genes. Levels of Mx2 were lower in large forests than in fragmented forests, possibly due to differences in parasite communities. We previously highlighted the positive association between infection with Heligmosomum mixtum and infection with PUUV. We found that Tnf-α was more strongly expressed in voles infected with PUUV than in uninfected voles or in voles co-infected with the nematode H. mixtum and PUUV. H. mixtum may limit the capacity of the vole to develop proinflammatory responses. This effect may increase the risk of PUUV infection and replication in host cells. Overall, our results suggest that close interactions between landscape features, co-infection and immune gene expression may shape PUUV epidemiology.Heredity advance online publication, 23 October 2013; doi:10.1038/hdy.2013.103.Heredity 10/2013; DOI:10.1038/hdy.2013.103 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In dogs, there are several idiopathic meningoencephalitides, such as necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), necrotizing leukoencephalitis (NLE), and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (GME). Although they are often assumed to be immune mediated, the etiology of these diseases remains elusive. In this study, the histopathology of the lesions caused by these conditions and the inflammatory cell populations produced in response to them were examined among dogs affected with GME, NME, or NLE to understand their pathogeneses. The brain tissues of dogs with NME (n = 25), NLE (n = 5), or GME (n = 9) were used. The inflammatory cells were identified by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against CD3, IgG, CD20, CD79acy, and CD163. In NME and NLE, malacic changes were located in the cerebral cortex, as well as the cerebral white matter and thalamus, respectively. The distribution of the brain lesions in NME and NLE was breed specific. In GME, granulomatous lesions that were mostly composed of epithelioid macrophages were observed in the cerebral white matter, cerebellum, and brainstem. Although the proportions of IgG-, CD20-, and CD79acy-positive cells (B cells) were not significantly different among the GME, NME, and NLE lesions, that of CD3-positive cells (T cells) was increased in GME. In NME and NLE, CD163-positive cells (macrophages) had diffusely infiltrated the cerebral cortex and white matter, respectively. However, in GME, CD163-positive cells accumulated around the blood vessels in the cerebral and cerebellar white matter. The distributions of these lesions were quite different among GME, NME, and NLE, whereas there were no marked differences in the proportions of inflammatory cells.Veterinary Pathology 01/2012; 49(4):682-92. DOI:10.1177/0300985811429311 · 2.04 Impact Factor