Relationships among adolescents' weight perceptions, exercise goals, exercise motivation, quality of life and leisure-time exercise behaviour: a self-determination theory approach
ABSTRACT Exercise has an important role to play in the prevention of child and adolescent obesity. Recent school-based interventions have struggled to achieve meaningful and lasting changes to exercise levels. Theorists have suggested that this may, in part, be due to the failure to incorporate psychosocial mediators as they relate to behaviour change. Using a sample of 580 British schoolchildren, a model grounded in self-determination theory was explored to examine the effects of exercise goals on exercise motivation, leisure-time exercise behaviour and quality of life (QoL). Results of structural equation modelling revealed that adolescents perceiving themselves to be overweight and pressurized to lose weight, endorsed extrinsic weight-related goals for exercise. Extrinsic goals negatively predicted, whereas intrinsic goals positively predicted, self-determined motivation, which in turn positively predicted QoL and exercise behaviour. Furthermore, self-determined motivation partially mediated the effects of exercise goals on reported exercise behaviour and QoL. Multi-sample invariance testing revealed the proposed model to be largely invariant across gender. Results suggest that holding extrinsic exercise goals could compromise exercise participation levels and QoL. A role for teachers and parents is proposed with the aim of orienting young people towards intrinsic goals in an attempt to enhance future exercise behaviour and QoL.
SourceAvailable from: Rabindarjeet Singh
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the motives of aerobics parti-cipants in relation to their perceived and preferred leadership behavior of aerobic instructors. Eighty seven aerobics participants (aged between 16–59 y) completed the cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Instruments assessed participantsʼ exercise motivation, and perceived and preferred leadership behaviour of their aerobic instructors. We found that in aerobics participants the appearance-and health-related dimensions of exercise motivation are higher ranked than flexibility and social motives. Although aerobics participants show relatively high levels of competitive and social motives compared with general population, the highest ranked incentive for them seems to be physical fitness. Aerobics participants perceive significantly less instructorsʼ democratic decision making, instruction, social support and positive feedback than they prefer, while they perceive signi-ficantly higher amount of autocratic decision making compared with their preference.09/2012; 17:53. DOI:10.12697/akut.2011.17.04
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ABSTRACT: Aim: To examine the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among overweight adolescents and to test whether this relationship is mediated by body image (BI) and self-determined motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise. Methods: One hundred and twenty adolescents identified as overweight or obese were recruited through the school health service. The participants completed self-report instruments measuring HRQoL, BI and self-determined motivation for physical activity and exercise in addition to a 20 m shuttle-run test, and body mass index was calculated. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to evaluate the hypothesised five-dimensional structure of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) used to measure self-determined motivation. Associations between the study variables were explored using univariate linear regression. Mediation was tested by a multistage regression approach. Results: The five-dimensional model of BREQ-2 showed acceptable fit for the data. We revealed a statistically significant association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HRQoL (4.16 [0.3-8.02]; p < .05). CRF failed to affect BI in the first mediation equation. Hence, body image was excluded from further analyses. However, self-determined motivation proved to mediate the relationship between CRF and HRQoL. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the motivational mechanisms related to fitness can contribute to explain the association between CRF and HRQoL in overweight adolescents. The findings are important from a public health point of view and should be taken into account in the development of PA interventions for overweight and obese adolescents for the potential enhancement of their physical and psychosocial well-being.Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 09/2014; 42(8). DOI:10.1177/1403494814550517 · 3.13 Impact Factor