Relationships among adolescents' weight perceptions, exercise goals, exercise motivation, quality of life and leisure-time exercise behavior: A self-determination theory approach

School for Health, University of Bath, Bath, UK.
Health Education Research (Impact Factor: 1.66). 01/2007; 21(6):836-47. DOI: 10.1093/her/cyl139
Source: PubMed


Exercise has an important role to play in the prevention of child and adolescent obesity. Recent school-based interventions have struggled to achieve meaningful and lasting changes to exercise levels. Theorists have suggested that this may, in part, be due to the failure to incorporate psychosocial mediators as they relate to behaviour change. Using a sample of 580 British schoolchildren, a model grounded in self-determination theory was explored to examine the effects of exercise goals on exercise motivation, leisure-time exercise behaviour and quality of life (QoL). Results of structural equation modelling revealed that adolescents perceiving themselves to be overweight and pressurized to lose weight, endorsed extrinsic weight-related goals for exercise. Extrinsic goals negatively predicted, whereas intrinsic goals positively predicted, self-determined motivation, which in turn positively predicted QoL and exercise behaviour. Furthermore, self-determined motivation partially mediated the effects of exercise goals on reported exercise behaviour and QoL. Multi-sample invariance testing revealed the proposed model to be largely invariant across gender. Results suggest that holding extrinsic exercise goals could compromise exercise participation levels and QoL. A role for teachers and parents is proposed with the aim of orienting young people towards intrinsic goals in an attempt to enhance future exercise behaviour and QoL.

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    • "These findings are, however, in contrast to those of Gillison et al. (2006) who examined a similar age range of UK-based adolescents as those examined in this study. However, in the case of Gillison et al. (2006), the Reasons for Exercise Inventory was employed as a measure of goal content. Subsequent research has identified that the questions within this measure reflect a combination of both goal content and behavioral regulation (Sebire et al., 2008), and direct "
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    ABSTRACT: Overall, 544 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 14.2 ± .94 years) completed self-report measures of physical activity goal content, behavioral regulations, and physical activity behavior. Body mass index was determined from height and mass. The indirect effect of intrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous (b = 162.27; 95% confidence interval [89.73, 244.70]), but not controlled motivation (b = 5.30; 95% confidence interval [-39.05, 45.16]). The indirect effect of extrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous (b = 106.25; 95% confidence interval [63.74, 159.13]) but not controlled motivation (b = 17.28; 95% confidence interval [-31.76, 70.21]). Weight status did not alter these findings.
    Journal of Health Psychology 10/2015; DOI:10.1177/1359105315609089 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Body dissatisfaction represents the discrepancy between an individual's current and ideal body size and shape, and its prevalence increases throughout adolescence [20] [21] [22]. Some studies claim that body and weight dissatisfaction represent worse health threats than obesity in itself, as they may trap adolescents in a vicious cycle of futile dieting, health compromising weight shifts, dysfunctional motivation for exercise, and thereby increased vulnerability for modern ideals of body size and shape [23] [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Physical exercise has positive effects on health. However, its associations with self-rated health and body image, which are important predictors for adolescents’ wellbeing and later morbidity, are complex. Methods. Cross-sectional survey among 2527 Norwegian adolescents. We examined the relations between self-reported gender, body size, amount and type of exercise and measures of self-rated health, drive for thinness, and desire to change body, with binary logistic regression analyses. Results. Girls and overweight students reported to a greater extent than their peers impaired self-rated health, weight concerns, and desire to change their body. Increasing amount of time spent on sports was related to improved self-rated health in a dose-responsemanner. Both girls and boys who engaged in individual sports with an advantage of leanness, but only girls engaged in teamsports, reported an increased desire to change the body. However, weight concern was not related to amount or type of sports. Conclusions. Physical exercise is positively related to self-reported health but has negative associations with body image for many adolescents. Health promotion efforts should consider this paradox and stimulate physical activity and sports along with body acceptance.
    Journal of Environmental and Public Health 06/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/851932
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    • "mpetence and relatedness satisfaction . This finding is not surprising given that researchers have demonstrated intrinsic goals to be related to well - being through psychological need satisfaction ( Sebire et al . , 2009 ) and research demonstrating that self - determined motivation mediated the link between goal con - tents and quality of life ( Gillison et al . , 2006 ) . Unique to the current findings however , we found that autonomous motivation and satisfaction of competence and relatedness needs simultaneously produced the indirect effect between relative intrinsic goals and vitality . This finding underscores the importance of examining satisfaction of each psychological need in relation to goal"
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This investigation examined how Goal Contents Theory, Organismic Integration Theory, and Basic Psychological Needs Theory collectively explain well-being and behavioral outcomes related to physical activity over 6 months. Specifically we examined a model whereby changes in relative intrinsic goal contents → changes in motivation → changes in psychological need satisfaction → well-being and physical activity. Methods and design Participants were 203 adults from the general population (68.00% female; Mage = 32.57 years, SD = 15.73). Two identical questionnaire packages containing assessments of goal contents, motivational regulations, basic psychological need satisfaction, indicators of well-being and physical activity behavior, separated by six months were given to participants. Residualized change scores were analyzed with path analysis. Results Results supported the hypothesized sequence of SDT. Changes in psychological need satisfaction mediated the relationship between changes in autonomous motivation and well-being. A more complex pattern of results emerged for the indirect effects of motivation and psychological need satisfaction between relative intrinsic goals → well-being. Changes in competence satisfaction mediated the relationship between autonomous motivation and physical activity behavior. Moreover, changes in autonomous motivation through competence satisfaction mediated the relationship between relative intrinsic goals and physical activity. Conclusions Findings support a model based on 3 mini-theories of SDT and suggest that psychological need fulfillment during physical activity could be a key mechanism that facilitates increased well-being and behavior. Findings also highlight the importance of examining competence, autonomy, and relatedness independently (rather than as a composite).
    Psychology of Sport and Exercise 01/2014; 15(1):19-29. DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.08.005 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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