Exercise has an important role to play in the prevention of child and adolescent obesity. Recent school-based interventions have struggled to achieve meaningful and lasting changes to exercise levels. Theorists have suggested that this may, in part, be due to the failure to incorporate psychosocial mediators as they relate to behaviour change. Using a sample of 580 British schoolchildren, a model grounded in self-determination theory was explored to examine the effects of exercise goals on exercise motivation, leisure-time exercise behaviour and quality of life (QoL). Results of structural equation modelling revealed that adolescents perceiving themselves to be overweight and pressurized to lose weight, endorsed extrinsic weight-related goals for exercise. Extrinsic goals negatively predicted, whereas intrinsic goals positively predicted, self-determined motivation, which in turn positively predicted QoL and exercise behaviour. Furthermore, self-determined motivation partially mediated the effects of exercise goals on reported exercise behaviour and QoL. Multi-sample invariance testing revealed the proposed model to be largely invariant across gender. Results suggest that holding extrinsic exercise goals could compromise exercise participation levels and QoL. A role for teachers and parents is proposed with the aim of orienting young people towards intrinsic goals in an attempt to enhance future exercise behaviour and QoL.
"Body dissatisfaction represents the discrepancy between an individual's current and ideal body size and shape, and its prevalence increases throughout adolescence   . Some studies claim that body and weight dissatisfaction represent worse health threats than obesity in itself, as they may trap adolescents in a vicious cycle of futile dieting, health compromising weight shifts, dysfunctional motivation for exercise, and thereby increased vulnerability for modern ideals of body size and shape  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Physical exercise has positive effects on health. However, its associations with self-rated health and body image, which
are important predictors for adolescents’ wellbeing and later morbidity, are complex. Methods. Cross-sectional survey among 2527
Norwegian adolescents. We examined the relations between self-reported gender, body size, amount and type of exercise and
measures of self-rated health, drive for thinness, and desire to change body, with binary logistic regression analyses. Results. Girls
and overweight students reported to a greater extent than their peers impaired self-rated health, weight concerns, and desire to
change their body. Increasing amount of time spent on sports was related to improved self-rated health in a dose-responsemanner.
Both girls and boys who engaged in individual sports with an advantage of leanness, but only girls engaged in teamsports, reported
an increased desire to change the body. However, weight concern was not related to amount or type of sports. Conclusions. Physical
exercise is positively related to self-reported health but has negative associations with body image for many adolescents. Health
promotion efforts should consider this paradox and stimulate physical activity and sports along with body acceptance.
Journal of Environmental and Public Health 06/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/851932
"mpetence and relatedness satisfaction . This finding is not surprising given that researchers have demonstrated intrinsic goals to be related to well - being through psychological need satisfaction ( Sebire et al . , 2009 ) and research demonstrating that self - determined motivation mediated the link between goal con - tents and quality of life ( Gillison et al . , 2006 ) . Unique to the current findings however , we found that autonomous motivation and satisfaction of competence and relatedness needs simultaneously produced the indirect effect between relative intrinsic goals and vitality . This finding underscores the importance of examining satisfaction of each psychological need in relation to goal"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
This investigation examined how Goal Contents Theory, Organismic Integration Theory, and Basic Psychological Needs Theory collectively explain well-being and behavioral outcomes related to physical activity over 6 months. Specifically we examined a model whereby changes in relative intrinsic goal contents → changes in motivation → changes in psychological need satisfaction → well-being and physical activity.
Methods and design
Participants were 203 adults from the general population (68.00% female; Mage = 32.57 years, SD = 15.73). Two identical questionnaire packages containing assessments of goal contents, motivational regulations, basic psychological need satisfaction, indicators of well-being and physical activity behavior, separated by six months were given to participants. Residualized change scores were analyzed with path analysis.
Results supported the hypothesized sequence of SDT. Changes in psychological need satisfaction mediated the relationship between changes in autonomous motivation and well-being. A more complex pattern of results emerged for the indirect effects of motivation and psychological need satisfaction between relative intrinsic goals → well-being. Changes in competence satisfaction mediated the relationship between autonomous motivation and physical activity behavior. Moreover, changes in autonomous motivation through competence satisfaction mediated the relationship between relative intrinsic goals and physical activity.
Findings support a model based on 3 mini-theories of SDT and suggest that psychological need fulfillment during physical activity could be a key mechanism that facilitates increased well-being and behavior. Findings also highlight the importance of examining competence, autonomy, and relatedness independently (rather than as a composite).
Psychology of Sport and Exercise 01/2014; 15(1):19-29. DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.08.005 · 1.90 Impact Factor
"The Behavioural Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire  served as a starting point. This scale is consistent with theoretical definitions and has shown good psychometric properties in adolescents . Within SDT, integrated regulation is the most autonomous form of extrinsic motivation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding children's physical activity motivation, its antecedents and associations with behavior is important and can be advanced by using self-determination theory. However, research among youth is largely restricted to adolescents and studies of motivation within certain contexts (e.g., physical education). There are no measures of self-determination theory constructs (physical activity motivation or psychological need satisfaction) for use among children and no previous studies have tested a self-determination theory-based model of children's physical activity motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of scores derived from scales adapted to measure self-determination theory constructs among children and test a motivational model predicting accelerometer-derived physical activity.
Cross-sectional data from 462 children aged 7 to 11 years from 20 primary schools in Bristol, UK were analysed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of adapted behavioral regulation and psychological need satisfaction scales. Structural equation modelling was used to test cross-sectional associations between psychological need satisfaction, motivation types and physical activity assessed by accelerometer.
The construct validity and reliability of the motivation and psychological need satisfaction measures were supported. Structural equation modelling provided evidence for a motivational model in which psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with intrinsic and identified motivation types and intrinsic motivation was positively associated with children's minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.
The study provides evidence for the psychometric properties of measures of motivation aligned with self-determination theory among children. Children's motivation that is based on enjoyment and inherent satisfaction of physical activity is associated with their objectively-assessed physical activity and such motivation is positively associated with perceptions of psychological need satisfaction. These psychological factors represent potential malleable targets for interventions to increase children's physical activity.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 09/2013; 10(1):111. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-10-111 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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