Relationships among adolescents’ weight perceptions,
exercise goals, exercise motivation, quality of life and
leisure-time exercise behaviour: a self-determination
F. B. Gillison1*, M. Standage1and S. M. Skevington2
Exercise has an important role to play in the
prevention of child and adolescent obesity. Re-
cent school-based interventions have struggled to
achieve meaningful and lasting changes to exer-
cise levels. Theorists have suggested that this
may, in part, be due to the failure to incorporate
psychosocial mediators as they relate to behav-
children, a model grounded in self-determination
theory was explored to examine the effects of
exercise behaviour and quality of life (QoL). Re-
sults of structural equation modelling revealed
weight and pressurized to lose weight, endorsed
sic goals negatively predicted, whereas intrin-
sic goals positively predicted, self-determined
motivation, which in turn positively predicted
QoL and exercise behaviour. Furthermore, self-
determined motivation partially mediated the
effects of exercise goals on reported exercise
behaviour and QoL. Multi-sample invariance
testing revealed the proposed model to be largely
invariant across gender. Results suggest that
exercise participation levels and QoL. A role for
teachers and parents is proposed with the aim of
orienting young people towards intrinsic goals in
an attempt to enhance future exercise behaviour
Child and adolescent obesity is an increasing prob-
lem in the United Kingdom, considered to be reach-
ing epidemic proportions [1–3]. Not only does
obesity have profound effects on health during
childhood and adolescence itself (e.g. raised blood
pressure , poor blood lipid profile  and insulin
resistance ), but also past work has shown child-
hood obesity to track into adulthood, exposing the
individual to long-term health risks [7–9]. Although
exercise alone has not been found sufficiently
powerful to significantly reduce existing obesity
, it has been associated with the prevention of
weight gain over the lifespan [11, 12] and better
long-term maintenance of weight loss following
dietary treatment .
UK government guidelines set specific responsi-
bilities to schools in tackling obesity [14, 15]; how-
ever, even the most extensive school-based exercise
programmes rarely show maintenance of improve-
ments beyond the duration of the intervention
is often of limited practical significance [16, 20].
Recent debate in the field [21–23] has argued that
this lack of effectiveness may result from the fail-
ure to apply theory to practice. Specifically, critics
[24, 25] suggest a more detailed examination of
psychosocial mediators of change (e.g. self-efficacy,
outcome expectations) isneeded to betterunderstand
how the modification of the social environment
1School for Health and2WHO Centre for the Study of
Quality of Life and Department of Psychology,
University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK
*Correspondence to: F. Gillison.
HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH
Theory & Practice
Vol.21 no.6 2006
Advance Access publication 13 November 2006
? The Author 2006. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
the isolation of ‘active ingredients’ within interven-
tions, allowing future programmes to be streamlined
to include only those elements proven to contribute
significantly towards positive outcomes [24, 25].
A motivational framework that can be readily ap-
plied to the science of behaviour change through
an explicit set of psychosocial mediators is self-
determination theory (SDT) [26, 27]. SDT proposes
that motivation is multidimensional and resides
along a continuum of self-determination ranging
from amotivation (i.e. when a person lacks the
motivation to act) through extrinsic motivation (i.e.
when a person acts in response to external cues)
to intrinsic motivation (i.e. when a person acts for
the inherent pleasure derived from that particular
activity) . In short, SDT proposes that self-
determined motivation leads to positive behavioural
(e.g. persistence) [28, 29], cognitive (e.g. interest
and enjoyment)  and psychological (e.g. well-
being) [27, 31] outcomes. In contrast, behaviour
low in self-determination (i.e. actions controlled by
external contingencies) has been shown to result in
negative psychological (e.g. ill-being), cognitive
(e.g. attention ) and behavioural (e.g. drop-out)
[33, 34]) outcomes (see Deci and Ryan  for an
overview). Promising findings in the field of
adolescent physical activity have reported that
many of the psychosocial mediators proposed by
SDT (e.g. motivation) are predictive of changes in
exercise level in a school setting .
In line with SDT’s theoretical hypothesis that
self-determined motivation will affect both behav-
ioural and psychosocial outcomes, we chose to ex-
amine two dependent variables representing each of
these, namely, leisure-time exercise and quality of
life (QoL). Leisure-time exercise is a commonly
used behavioural indicator of volitional motivation
(e.g. Hagger et al. , Chatzisarantis et al. ),
selected as it represents activities over which
adolescents have a choice, rather than mandatory
forms of exercise such as physical education (PE)
or daily chores. QoL is a global construct that re-
flects a person’s view of how their own life is going
in line with their values and expectations ,
selected as it represents a construct not unduly sus-
ceptible to daily fluctuations. Aligned with the tenets
of SDT, we hypothesized that self-determined moti-
vation would positively predict participants’ leisure-
time exercise and reported QoL.
In addition to the importance of motivation (that
is why a person takes part), SDT also considers that
what goal a person holds for the activity will be
important for a number of outcomes . The con-
tent of goals can be classified as either intrinsic or
extrinsic . Intrinsic goals, such as the formation
of social relationships and self-development, stem
from a person’s core values and are inherently
rewarding to pursue. As such, they promote self-
versely, extrinsic goals stem from aims to achieve
outcomes separable from the activity itself, such as
wealth and status, and are usually formed in res-
ponse to external pressures. Extrinsic goals foster
more controlling forms of regulation. Intrinsic goals
(as opposed to extrinsic goals) have been shown to
be positively associated with self-determined moti-
vation in past research . In addition, SDT
proposes that goals have independent effects on
those same outcome variables influenced by the
behaviour and well-being. That is, self-determined
motivation partially mediates the associations be-
tween goal content and dependent variables. Recent
research has supported these hypothesized associa-
tions in the context of classroom education  and
In line with these proposed relationships, in the
present work, we hypothesized that self-determined
motivation would partially mediate the relationship
between intrinsic and extrinsic goal content and
the dependent variables of QoL and leisure-time
Exercise goal content and physical
In exercise settings, the goals of health, fitness,
social relationships and enjoyment have all been
categorized as intrinsic goals, whereas exercising to
improve physical appearance and to lose weight are
Weight perceptions and exercise goals
characteristic of extrinsic goals [32, 46]. Intrinsic
exercise goals have been associated with increased
effort, performance and persistence , whereas
extrinsic exercise goals have been related to indi-
cators of psychosocial distress such as body dis-
satisfaction and dysfunctional eating .
Past work has demonstrated that some of the
precursors to the extrinsic goals of weight manage-
ment and appearance begin to emerge at or around
puberty [47, 48], largely as a result of the biological
and associated social changes occurring at this time
and the increasing importance of physical appear-
ance to peer acceptance and social status [46, 49].
A variable indicative of this is ‘social physique
anxiety’ (SPA), that is, the degree to which a person
becomes anxious in social settings when they per-
ceive their physique is being negatively evaluated
by others . Previous studies have demonstrated
a link between SPA, exercise goals  and moti-
vation  in adults; exercisers high in SPA are
more likely to endorse extrinsic motives and con-
trolled forms of motivation for exercise than those
low in SPA. We have found no such work carried
out with adolescents. Because SPA directs the indi-
vidual’s focus towards external indicators of worth,
in the present study, we hypothesized that SPA
would be positively associated with external goals
and negatively related to intrinsic goals.
A final but important consideration in research
relating to leisure-time exercise and self-perceptions
in adolescence is that of gender. Significant gender
differences would be expected for a number of
variables assessed in our study, for example boys
would be expected to report greater leisure-time
exercise , and girls to report greater weight dis-
satisfaction . However, while mean values may
differ, it is of greater interest to establish whether
the pattern of relationships between the constructs
remains similar. Previous work suggests this would
be the case, as, for example, although high levels of
SPA are less common in boys, the consequences for
boys who report this experience are similar .
Consistent with past work [55, 56], we therefore
hypothesized that the mean values of constructs
would differ as a function of gender, but that the
pattern of associations would be consistent. Such a
finding is important when examining theoretical
models of motivation such as SDT which assumes
universality, and for the practical implications that
In summary, the present study aims to assess the
prevalence of extrinsic exercise goals in an adoles-
cent sample, and examines a model of psycholog-
ical processes aligned with SDT, linking these to
leisure-time exercise and QoL (Fig. 1). The model
predicts that (i) individuals who perceive both that
they are overweight and pressure from others to lose
weight will experience greater SPA, (ii) perceived
pressure to lose weight and SPA will positively
predict extrinsic exercise goals and negatively
predict intrinsic exercise goals, (iii) more self-
determined forms of motivation will positively pre-
dict leisure-time exercise behaviour and quality of
life, and (iv) the impact of goals on the outcomes of
leisure-time exercise and QoL will be partially
mediated by self-determined motivation.
to lose weight
Fig. 1. Hypothesized model.
F. B. Gillison et al.
Participants were 580 [M age = 14.06 years (range
13.05–15.33), SD = 0.32, 300 males, 280 females]
pupils from four coeducational comprehensive
schools located in South-West England. Schools
within a single education authority were approached
final sample were situated in small rural towns, with
served pupils of below-average socio-economic sta-
tus [e.g. entitlement to free school meals (FSM) at 13
and 9%], and two served areas of above-average
socio-economic status (FSM 6%). All Year 9 pupils
were eligible to take part. Written consent was ob-
tained from the head teachers acting in loco parentis,
not wish their child to take part. Twelve parents
withdrew their children at this stage. Finally, verbal
consent was obtained from pupils, 87% of whom
provided complete data.
Weight status was approximated through body
mass index (BMI, kg m?2), classifying participants
as either not overweight or overweight as defined by
sex- and age (in months)-adjusted international BMI
873, Seca Ltd), and height measured with a portable
stadiometer (Leicester Height Measure, Seca Ltd).
Participants were asked to rate their perceived
weight status using a single item taken from the
US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent
Health . Participants classified their current
weight as underweight, slightly underweight, about
right, slightly overweight or overweight.
Perceived pressure to lose weight
Perceived pressure to lose weight was measured
parents, friends and the media to (i) be thin and
(ii) lose weight . The scale has been validated
through factor analysis , reported to have ade-
quate test–retest reliability (a = 0.84 for girls and
0.80 for boys), and to correlate significantly with
related constructs of body dissatisfaction (r = 0.38)
and weight loss attempts (r = 0.67) .
Social physique anxiety
SPA was assessed using a seven-item version of
the SPA scale , reported to have good internal
consistency with an adolescent population (female
a = 0.87, male a = 0.85) . Responses were indi-
cated on a five-point Likert-type scale anchored by
(1) ‘not at all’ to (5) ‘extremely’. In the present
work, a = 0.80.
Exercise goal content was measured using the Rea-
sons for Exercise Inventory  which consists of
23 items, distributed between seven factors: fitness,
mood, health, enjoyment, weight control, to be more
attractive and to improve body tone. In line with
previous research [45, 46], items within the first four
factors were categorized as intrinsic (e.g. ‘to have
fun’), and those in the final three factors classified
as extrinsic (e.g. ‘to lose weight’). Responses were
acceptable (a = 0.94 and 0.84) with a UK adolescent
sample (M age = 16.8) . Construct validity was
supported through confirmation of significant corre-
lations between body dissatisfaction and extrinsic
factors. The a coefficients in the present work were
0.90 and 0.88 for the intrinsic and extrinsic sub-
Motivation towards exercise was measured using
the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Question-
naire-2 . This scale comprises 19 items relating
Weight perceptions and exercise goals
to the five types of regulation identified by SDT
(from least to most self-determined: amotivation,
external regulation, introjected regulation, identi-
fied regulation and intrinsic motivation). Responses
were indicated on a five-point Likert-type scale
anchored by (0) ‘not true for me’ to (4) ‘very true
for me’. Adequate factorial validity and reliability
has been reported for this measure in an adolescent
sample . In the present work, the a coefficients
were 0.82, 0.76, 0.74, 0.74 and 0.87 for amotiva-
tion, external regulation, introjected regulation,
identified regulation and intrinsic motivation,
For the purpose of examining the hypothesized
model, and consistent with past work [33, 34], we
assigned weights to each sub-scale to form a single
index labelled ‘self-determined motivation’: (amo-
tivation 3 ?3) + (external regulation 3 ?2) +
(introjected regulation 3 ?1) + (identified regula-
tion 3 2) + (intrinsic regulation 3 3).
Quality of life
QoL was assessed using the KIDSCREEN self-
report questionnaire . The measure consists of
52 items assessing 10 dimensions of QoL estab-
lished following consultation with adolescents,
their parents and their carers in >13 European
countries: physical well-being, psychological well-
being, mood and emotions, self-perceptions, auton-
omy, family relationships, relationships with friends,
school environment, bullying and financial resour-
ces. Responses were indicated on a five-point Likert-
type scale anchored by (1) ‘never’ to (5) ‘always’.
Trials in a sample of >20000 children reported
adequate internal reliability (a = 0.77–0.89) .
In the present work, the a coefficients ranged from
0.78 to 0.90.
Leisure-time exercise behaviour
A short self-report activity questionnaire was
chosen to limit response burden for participants,
in the form of the Leisure-Time Exercise Question-
naire (LTEQ ). This scale assesses the fre-
quency of weekly physical activity at mild,
moderate and strenuous intensities. Test–retest re-
liability of the LTEQ has been established with
adolescents, and found to be consistent regardless
of delayed recall ability . While only low-to-
moderate associations have been reported with
adolescents in a validation trial with the Caltrac
accelerometer , such findings are of a compara-
ble magnitude to other self-report measures in this
The study was introduced by the principal in-
vestigator, reminding participants that there were
no right or wrong answers, and of their right to
withdraw at any time. Pupils were guided through
the LTEQ to ensure correct understanding, and
subsequently completed the remaining question-
naire packet at their own pace. Pupils were asked to
bring their completed questionnaires to a separate
room/partitioned area where weight and height
were measured privately to avoid embarrassment.
To ensure confidentiality, all measurement and
assistance with questionnaires were provided by
the research team and not teachers.
Descriptive statistics were calculated separately for
males and females, and gender differences explored
using t-tests and v2tests. The adequacy of the
theoretical model was tested via structural equation
modelling using the maximum likelihood estima-
tion method in conjunction with the bootstrapping
procedure, using AMOS Version 6.0 . In view
of the complex model to be tested, and consistent
with past work (e.g. Reinboth et al. ), the
number of parameters to be estimated was reduced
by using a parcelling technique. The adequacy of
the fit of the proposed model to the data was
examined using the standardized root mean square
residual (SRMR), along with one or more incre-
mental or absolute fit index. In the present study we
used the comparative fit index (CFI), incremental fit
index (IFI), and root mean square error of approx-
imation (RMSEA). A good fitting model is in-
dicated by values close to or >0.95 for the CFI and
IFI, and values of (or less than) 0.08 and 0.06 for
the SRMR and RMSEA, respectively .
F. B. Gillison et al.
Multi-sample invariance analysis was conducted
to test for equality of constraints across gender 
through examining the differences in the absolute
and incremental fit indices following the sequential
addition of constraints on the model. Constraints
were applied in line with the procedure outlined by
Byrne, 2001 .
Descriptive statistics are summarized in Table I.
Boys engaged in significantly more exercise per
week than girls (t(578) = 6.59, P < 0.001),
averaging 10 sessions of moderate or strenuous
exercise per week, compared with six to seven
sessions for girls. There was no gender difference
in the proportion of overweight individuals (19%
boys, 20% girls); however, a significantly greater
proportion of girls perceived themselves to be over-
weight than did boys (43 versus 26%, v2(1) = 21.8,
P < 0.001). Girls experienced greater SPA (t(578) =
the media to lose weight (t(578) = ?6.6, P < 0.001)
but not from friends or family. Girls were also less
self-determined in their motivation for exercise
(t(578) = 3.0, P < 0.005), and reported poorer QoL
than boys (t(578) = 3.0, P < 0.005).
exercise goal if they responded with ‘very’ or
‘extremely’ on the seven-point rating scale. The
most commonly reported goals for boys were fit-
ness (36%) and health (33%), and for girls body
tone (27%), health (26%) and attractiveness (26%).
Girls reported exercising for extrinsic goals more
frequently than boys, and intrinsic goals less fre-
quently. Specifically, they were significantly more
likely to report goals of weight control (22 versus
10%, v2(1) = 17.0, P < 0.001) and body tone (27
versus 20%, v2(1) = 4.1, P < 0.05), but significantly
less likely to report goals of fitness (17 versus 36%,
v2(1) = 25.9, P < 0.001) and mood regulation
(5 versus 10%, v2(1) = 5.2, P < 0.05).
Structural equation modelling
The results for the hypothesized model showed a
reasonable fit to the data [v2(96) = 684.5, P < 0.01,
CFI = 0.90, IFI = 0.90, SRMR = 0.158, RMSEA =
0.103 (0.096–0.110)]. However, modification in-
dices suggested that the disturbance terms of in-
trinsic and extrinsic goals be allowed to covary, and
the addition of a path between SPA and QoL. This
path was added to the model as it is in accordance
Table I. Gender comparison of baseline variables
Male Female Difference
Leisure-time exercise (expressed
as energy expenditure, in METs)
Level of SPA
Perceived pressure to lose weight
Proportion overweight (CDC growth
Proportion perceiving self as
P < 0.001
P < 0.005
P < 0.005
P < 0.001
P < 0.001
P < 0.005
P < 0.001
METs, metabolic equivalents.
Weight perceptions and exercise goals
with existing theory . The re-specified model
showed a marked improvement in fit to the data
[v2(94) = 291.5, P < 0.01, CFI = 0.97, IFI = 0.97,
SRMR = 0.057, RMSEA = 0.060 (0.053–0.068)]
The re-specified model was then used as a base-
line for the gender invariance analysis. The statis-
tical indices showed acceptable fit for both sexes
(Table II), and with the exception of the path
between BMI and perceived pressure in girls, all
individual paths remained significant (Table III). In
line with the specification approach described by
Byrne , this path was released, and instead
estimated freely for boys, and constrained to zero
for girls. The changes in fit indices following
sequential constraints  were sufficiently small
(Table II) for the invariance model to be retained
with acceptable fit. Such findings support partial
Finally, our hypothesis that the effect of exercise
goal content on activity levels and QoL would be
partially mediated by self-determined motivation
was explored using bootstrap-generated bias-cor-
rected confidence intervals (CIs) (cf. MacKinnon
et al. , MacKinnon et al. ). Results showed
exercise goal content to have significant indirect
effects on both activity levels and QoL via self-
determined motivation (in addition to significant
direct effects). Specifically, standardized indirect
effects emerged for extrinsic goals on reported
leisure-time exercise behaviour [b = ?0.11 (90%
CI = ?0.16 to ?0.08)] and on QoL [b = ?0.15
(90% CI = ?0.19 to ?0.11)]. Likewise, standard-
ized indirect effects for intrinsic goals emerged on
reported leisure-time exercise behaviour [b = 0.24
(90% CI = 0.19 to 0.30)] and QoL [b = 0.31 (90%
CI = 0.25 to 0.38)].
Pulling from the tenets of SDT, the primary purpose
of this study was to test a hypothesized model of
associations between goal content, leisure-time
exercise and QoL. Following some minor modifi-
cations, the hypothesized model was supported
(Fig. 2). A second aim was to test the model for
measurement invariance across gender. Our results
revealed the model to be partially invariant, with
one path differing between groups; the path be-
tween BMI and perceived pressure to lose weight
was significant for boys and not for girls. This
finding is in line with inferences from previous
work which has shown that weight perceptions, but
not BMI, to predict perceived pressure to be slim in
adolescent girls (e.g. Sweeting and West ,
Crocker et al. , Brener et al. ). All other
paths advanced in the hypothesized model were
supported across gender, supporting our hypothesis
that the model fit was largely invariant.
to lose weight
Fig. 2. Final model (standardized solution). For visual simplicity, measurement terms (thetas and epsilons) are not shown. All solid
paths are significant (i.e. their z scores are >1.96).
F. B. Gillison et al.
Perceptions of pressure to lose weight were an
important antecedent to perceptions of SPA and the
endorsement of extrinsic goals. This pathway
makes conceptual sense, as one would expect
individuals who perceive external pressures to
experience increased evaluative threat, which man-
ifests, for example, as SPA. The direct path from
perceived pressure to lose weight to extrinsic ex-
ercise goals can be interpreted in light of SDT;
individuals who perceive that they have been pres-
surized and/or coerced into action by others (e.g.
parents, peers) would be expected to pursue goals
focusing on external indicators (e.g. image, inter-
personal comparison) [32, 35, 80].
Although contrary to our hypotheses, the lack of
a significant negative path between SPA and in-
trinsic goals has positive implications, suggesting
that intrinsic (and therefore more adaptive) goals for
exercise can persist despite the presence of body-
SPA and QoL was not included in the original
the presence of negative self-perceptions, and would
thus be expected to have a direct negative impact on
a number of QoL domains (e.g. self-perceptions,
Finally, as hypothesized and consistent with
theory (cf. Deci and Ryan ), extrinsic exercise
goals negatively predicted, while intrinsic goals
positively predicted, levels of self-determined mo-
tivation. In turn, greater self-determination in
motivation predicted higher levels of leisure-time
exercise, and better QoL.
In addition to direct paths, intrinsic goals had
significant positive indirect effects, whereas extrin-
sic goals had significant negative indirect effects
(albeit weak) on leisure-time exercise and QoL. The
effects of goal content on our dependent variables
were partially mediated by self-determined motiva-
tion. In showing the goal content dimensions to
explain independent variance in the dependent
variables, our findings are consistent with both the
theoretical tenets of SDT  and recent empirical
research in school  and adult exercise 
settings. Collectively, the present findings support
pastwork(cf.Vansteenkiste etal.) insuggesting
that fostering intrinsic goals could be beneficial for
adolescents, and reinforces the need to understand
both the what and why of motivation.
The central implication from the present findings is
that exercise goal content may prove a useful target
for interventions aimed at promoting exercise
Table III. Standardized b weights for the final model separated
BMI ! perceived weight status
BMI ! perceived pressure
Perceived weight status ! perceived
Perceived pressure ! SPA
Perceived pressure ! extrinsic goals
SPA ! extrinsic goals
SPA ! QoL
Extrinsic goals ! motivation
Intrinsic goals ! motivation
Motivation ! QoL
Motivation ! exercise
aDenotes a non-significant standardized b weight.
Table II. Sequential fit indices for gender invariance model
DdfCFI IFISRMR RMSEA (90% CI)
Weight perceptions and exercise goals
motivation and participation in adolescents. Pre-
vious research supports that this is a realistic aim
in a school setting, as it has been demonstrated that
goal content can be influenced by a simple script
presented to students in the classroom , and
preliminary evidence suggests that basic training is
effective inhelping evenhighly controlling teachers
to alter their teaching style to become more au-
tonomy supportive . If parents and teachers
are able to influence goal content by altering the
social context, they may have the potential to
significantly impact adolescent exercise motiva-
tion, QoL and physical activity.
However, at a public health level, we acknowl-
edge that the primary role for goal content in
exercise interventions lies in promoting the main-
tenance of activities, rather than in their initiation.
Instruction and practice are needed to achieve a
reasonable level of competence in any new activity
before it can become self-determined , and thus,
the structural changes that many large school-based
interventions (e.g. Pate et al. , Dale et al. )
adopt may be essential to provide this initial dis-
cipline and experience. Therefore, we see the role
for the manipulation of goal content as a component
to supplement such programmes to increase the
likelihood of their achieving longer term effects.
There are a number of limitations to this study.
First, self-report exercise measures can result in
overestimates of activity level , and as such, the
use of objective assessments of exercise would cor-
roborate and add further validity to our findings.
Second, we used only an approximation of the
degree of overweight of participants in our model,
as BMI is an inexact measure of body fatness, which
does not take full account of maturation status.
Greater accuracy could be achieved through meas-
ures such as skinfold thickness, twinned with an
individual assessment of maturation status. Finally,
tion of the observed relationships was not demon-
but future work adopting longitudinal and/or experi-
mental designs would provide a greater insight into
Future research is warranted to investigate whether
the present findings can be usefully translated into
practice. As a first step, given that this study can
suggest only that goals are associated with motiva-
tion and outcomes, it would be informative to test
whether it is more productive in practice to focus on
promoting intrinsic goals or on reducing extrinsic
goals. For example, the extrinsic goal of weight loss
may prove not to be open to our influence, given the
cultural and societal pressures over which practi-
tioners have little if any control but to which
teenagers are continually exposed (such as pressure
to aspire to a societal thin ideal ). A further
challenge lies in identifying specific intrinsic goals
that would be perceived as meaningful and relevant
to adolescents, given their many other priorities and
changing values in this important life transition.
Building on experimental research , it is our
hope that such work would provide useful infor-
mation on the translation of theory to practice in
influencing the health behaviours that play a role in
curbing the rising tide of child and adolescent
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Received on January 31, 2006; accepted on September 30, 2006
Weight perceptions and exercise goals