Further questions regarding the role of mosaic penA sequences in conferring reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.57). 03/2007; 51(2):802-3. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01307-06
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence and spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with resistance to oral antibiotics have led to difficulty in treating gonorrhea. We review drug resistance in N. gonorrhoeae with a particular emphasis on resistance to fluoroquinolones, cefixime and azithromycin. Literature selected from peer reviewed journals listed in MEDLINE(R)/PubMed(R) from 1943 to 2009 and from resources cited in those articles was reviewed comprehensively. Due to the spread of fluoroquinolone resistant N. gonorrhoeae fluoroquinolones are no longer recommended for the treatment of gonorrhea. The emergence of N. gonorrhoeae with a mosaic penicillin-binding protein 2 associated with oral cephalosporin resistance has threatened cefixime treatment for gonorrhea. Emergence of N. gonorrhoeae with high level resistance to azithromycin has also been documented. However, injectable antibiotics (sepctinomycin and ceftriaxone) retain their activity against N. gonorrhoeae. To monitor drug resistance in N. gonorrhoeae several national and international programs have become functional. Oral regimens for the treatment of gonorrhea are limited. At present to our knowledge ceftriaxone is the most reliable and available agent for the treatment of gonorrhea. To prevent the further emergence and international spread of drug resistance, and allow for the selection of appropriate treatments, a comprehensive global program is needed including surveillance for drug resistance in N. gonorrhoeae and collection of patient epidemiological data. Clinicians should effectively treat patients with gonorrhea, always being conscious of local trends of drug resistance in N. gonorrhoeae, and should perform culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in those with persistent gonorrhea after treatment.
    The Journal of urology 09/2010; 184(3):851-8; quiz 1235. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine mutations within the penA, mtrR, porB, ponA and pilQ genes of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to determine their contribution to cephalosporin resistance. A total of 46 N. gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to cefixime or ceftriaxone (MICs > or = 0.12 mg/L) and two susceptible isolates were selected. The full sequence of penA and partial sequences previously reported as hot mutation sites of the other genes were analysed. Genotyping by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) was also performed. A mosaic penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2) was found in a single isolate that exhibited the highest cefixime MIC (0.5 mg/L). The majority of the isolates with reduced susceptibility to cephalosporins contained non-mosaic PBP 2 sequences, of which PBP 2 pattern XIII was most common (28/46). All isolates with reduced susceptibility to cephalosporins also had mtrR and porB mutations. Two susceptible isolates had the PBP 2 pattern XIV and an incomplete MtrR protein, which was a new mutation. Isolates with identical PBP 2 patterns comprised multiple NG-MAST sequence types. Reduced susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone and cefixime was associated with diverse penA mutations, particularly PBP 2 pattern XIII containing an Ala-501-->Val substitution, together with mtrR and porB mutations. The existence of only one strain having the mosaic penA sequence indicated that ceftriaxone and cefixime resistance in Korea is mostly not associated with a mosaic penA sequence. Highly heterogeneous NG-MAST sequence types excluded the clonal expansion of a particular subtype.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 04/2010; 65(4):669-75. · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of resistance to multiple antibiotics has limited treatment options for gonorrhea in many countries. Currently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention only recommend cephalosporin antibiotics for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea. Although the cephalosporins remain effective, the demonstrated ability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to develop resistance has raised concerns about the possibility of multidrug-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains, which include cephalosporin resistance. This article provides a review of global trends in cephalosporin susceptibility among gonococcal isolates, recent findings that deepen our understanding of genetic mechanisms of resistance, and the public health and clinical implications of the potential emergence of cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea.
    Current Infectious Disease Reports 04/2011; 13(2):196-204.

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