Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1) is a rare, autosomal, recessive, inherited disease resulting from mutations in the ATP8B1 gene which is expressed at high levels in the small intestine and pancreas and at lower levels in the liver. Given this expression pattern, patients might be expected to have a pancreatic phenotype. Although pancreatitis and steatorrhea have been reported in patients with PFIC1, the available data on pancreatic function are not fully convincing. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess exocrine pancreatic function in patients with PFIC1.
Three subjects with a diagnosis of PFIC1 were included in the study. The diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis of ATP8B1. Prior to surgical treatment (biliary diversion), two patients had steatorrhea and in the third patient, a borderline value for fecal fat excretion was documented. In one patient, liver transplantation also was subsequently performed. Exocrine pancreatic secretion was assessed by the use of fecal elastase-1 and chymotrypsin tests. Fecal lipase concentrations were determined in order to exclude isolated lipase deficiency. Other typical diagnostic procedures were performed annually.
The results of the fecal tests were within the normal range. None of the three patients experienced any episodes that could be related to acute or chronic pancreatitis. Laboratory tests including serum amylase and lipase tests were always normal. Abdominal ultrasonography findings did not show any pancreatic pathology.
Pancreatic secretion in the study patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 was normal. The observed steatorrhea was not related to pancreatic insufficiency.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with severe bile salt export pump (BSEP) deficiency present as infants with progressive cholestatic liver disease. We characterized mutations of ABCB11 (encoding BSEP) in such patients and correlated genotypes with residual protein detection and risk of malignancy.
Patients with intrahepatic cholestasis suggestive of BSEP deficiency were investigated by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and sequencing of ABCB11. Genotypes sorted by likely phenotypic severity were correlated with data on BSEP immunohistochemistry and clinical outcome.
Eighty-two different mutations (52 novel) were identified in 109 families (9 nonsense mutations, 10 small insertions and deletions, 15 splice-site changes, 3 whole-gene deletions, 45 missense changes). In 7 families, only a single heterozygous mutation was identified despite complete sequence analysis. Thirty-two percent of mutations occurred in >1 family, with E297G and/or D482G present in 58% of European families (52/89). On immunohistochemical analysis (88 patients), 93% had abnormal or absent BSEP staining. Expression varied most for E297G and D482G, with some BSEP detected in 45% of patients (19/42) with these mutations. Hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma developed in 15% of patients (19/128). Two protein-truncating mutations conferred particular risk; 38% (8/21) of such patients developed malignancy versus 10% (11/107) with potentially less severe genotypes (relative risk, 3.7 [confidence limits, 1.7-8.1; P = .003]).
With this study, >100 ABCB11 mutations are now identified. Immunohistochemically detectable BSEP is typically absent, or much reduced, in severe disease. BSEP deficiency confers risk of hepatobiliary malignancy. Close surveillance of BSEP-deficient patients retaining their native liver, particularly those carrying 2 null mutations, is essential.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2) is a rapidly developing hepatic disease that leads to early childhood cirrhosis and liver failure. We present a diagnostically challenging case of a 20-year-old male with 8 years history of recurrent icteric episodes and constantly normal serum levels of GGT. Genetic study disclosed two novel muta-tions in gene ABCB11 and liver histopathology provided evidence of intrahepatic cholestasis with slowly progressing fi-brosis. Concurrent diseases were cholelithiasis and chronic calcifying pancreatitis.
The Open Gastroenterology Journal 06/2008; 2(1):38-40. DOI:10.2174/1874259900802010038
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) with normal serum levels of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase can result from mutations in ATP8B1 (encoding familial intrahepatic cholestasis 1 [FIC1]) or ABCB11 (encoding bile salt export pump [BSEP]). We evaluated clinical and laboratory features of disease in patients diagnosed with PFIC, who carried mutations in ATP8B1 (FIC1 deficiency) or ABCB11 (BSEP deficiency). Our goal was to identify features that distinguish presentation and course of these two disorders, thus facilitating diagnosis and elucidating the differing consequences of ATP8B1 and ABCB11 mutations.
A retrospective multi-center study was conducted, using questionnaires and chart review. Available clinical and biochemical data from 145 PFIC patients with mutations in either ATP8B1 (61 "FIC1 patients") or ABCB11 (84 "BSEP patients") were evaluated.
At presentation, serum aminotransferase and bile salt levels were higher in BSEP patients; serum alkaline phosphatase values were higher, and serum albumin values were lower, in FIC1 patients. Elevated white blood cell counts, and giant or multinucleate cells at liver biopsy, were more common in BSEP patients. BSEP patients more often had gallstones and portal hypertension. Diarrhea, pancreatic disease, rickets, pneumonia, abnormal sweat tests, hearing impairment, and poor growth were more common in FIC1 patients. Among BSEP patients, the course of disease was less rapidly progressive in patients bearing the D482G mutation.
Severe forms of FIC1 and BSEP deficiency differed. BSEP patients manifested more severe hepatobiliary disease, while FIC1 patients showed greater evidence of extrahepatic disease.
Journal of Hepatology 07/2010; 53(1):170-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2010.01.034 · 11.34 Impact Factor
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