Recovery from a bout of exercise is associated with an elevation in metabolism referred to as the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). A number of investigators in the first half of the last century reported prolonged EPOC durations and that the EPOC was a major component of the thermic effect of activity. It was therefore thought that the EPOC was a major contributor to total daily energy expenditure and hence the maintenance of body mass. Investigations conducted over the last two or three decades have improved the experimental protocols used in the pioneering studies and therefore have more accurately characterized the EPOC. Evidence has accumulated to suggest an exponential relationship between exercise intensity and the magnitude of the EPOC for specific exercise durations. Furthermore, work at exercise intensities >or=50-60% VO2max stimulate a linear increase in EPOC as exercise duration increases. The existence of these relationships with resistance exercise at this stage remains unclear because of the limited number of studies and problems with quantification of work intensity for this type of exercise. Although the more recent studies do not support the extended EPOC durations reported by some of the pioneering investigators, it is now apparent that a prolonged EPOC (3-24 h) may result from an appropriate exercise stimulus (submaximal: >or=50 min at >or=70% VO2max; supramaximal: >or=6 min at >or=105% VO2max). However, even those studies incorporating exercise stimuli resulting in prolonged EPOC durations have identified that the EPOC comprises only 6-15% of the net total oxygen cost of the exercise. But this figure may need to be increased when studies utilizing intermittent work bouts are designed to allow the determination of rest interval EPOCs, which should logically contribute to the EPOC determined following the cessation of the last work bout. Notwithstanding the aforementioned, the earlier research optimism regarding an important role for the EPOC in weight loss is generally unfounded. This is further reinforced by acknowledging that the exercise stimuli required to promote a prolonged EPOC are unlikely to be tolerated by non-athletic individuals. The role of exercise in the maintenance of body mass is therefore predominantly mediated via the cumulative effect of the energy expenditure during the actual exercise.
"While the potential mechanisms for improved body composition with SIT are not well understood, it would appear that some increase in postexercise metabolism is likely a contributing factor as the oxygen consumption (V ˙ O 2 ) during an SIT session is much less than a continuous aerobic exercise session (Hazell et al. 2012). Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is the increased oxygen utilized above resting postexercise (Gaesser and Brooks 1984) and depends on both exercise intensity and duration (Borsheim and Bahr 2003; Laforgia et al. 2006; Sedlock et al. 1989). A single SIT session has been demonstrated to increase EPOC (ϳ14 L or 70 kcal) in the 2-h postexercise session (Chan and Burns 2013) and perhaps more importantly to increase total O 2 consumed over 24 h versus continuous aerobic exercise (Hazell et al. 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most sprint interval training (SIT) research involves cycling as the mode of exercise and whether running SIT elicits a similar excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) response to cycling SIT is unknown. As running is a more whole-body-natured exercise, the potential EPOC response could be greater when using a running session compared with a cycling session. The purpose of the current study was to determine the acute effects of a running versus cycling SIT session on EPOC and whether potential sex differences exist. Sixteen healthy recreationally active individuals (8 males and 8 females) had their gas exchange measured over ∼2.5 h under 3 experimental sessions: (i) a cycle SIT session, (ii) a run SIT session, and (iii) a control (CTRL; no exercise) session. Diet was controlled. During exercise, both SIT modes increased oxygen consumption (cycle: male, 1.967 ± 0.343; female, 1.739 ± 0.296 L·min(-1); run: male, 2.169 ± 0.369; female, 1.791 ± 0.481 L·min(-1)) versus CTRL (male, 0.425 ± 0.065 L·min(-1); female, 0.357 ± 0.067; P < 0.001), but not compared with each other (P = 0.234). In the first hour postexercise, oxygen consumption was still increased following both run (male, 0.590 ± 0.065; female, 0.449 ± 0.084) and cycle SIT (male, 0.556 ± 0.069; female, 0.481 ± 0.110 L·min(-1)) versus CTRL and oxygen consumption was maintained through the second hour postexercise (CTRL: male, 0.410 ± 0.048; female, 0.332 ± 0.062; cycle: male, 0.430 ± 0.047; female, 0.395 ± 0.087; run: male, 0.463 ± 0.051; female, 0.374 ± 0.087 L·min(-1)). The total EPOC was not significantly different between modes of exercise or males and females (P > 0.05). Our data demonstrate that the mode of exercise during SIT (cycling or running) is not important to O2 consumption and that males and females respond similarly.
"In literature regarding exercise training, exercise intensity was usually evaluated by maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max). In Laforgia's  report, low intensity was defined as less than 50% VO2max, moderate intensity as 50–75% VO2max and high intensity as more than 75% VO2max. The standard for running of moderate intensity we used was recommended by Bedford et al . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current medical practice for the treatment of articular cartilage lesions remains a clinical challenge due to the limited self-repair ability of articular cartilage. Both experimental and clinical researches show that moderate exercise can improve articular cartilage repair process. However, optimal timing of moderate exercise is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effect of timing of moderate treadmill exercise on repair of full-thickness defects of articular cartilage.
Full-thickness cartilage defects were drilled in the patellar groove of bilateral femoral condyles in a total of 40 male SD rats before they were randomly assigned into four even groups. In sedentary control (SED) group, no exercise was given; in 2-week (2W), 4-week (4W) and 8-week groups, moderate treadmill exercise was initiated respectively two, four and eight weeks after operation. Half of the animals were sacrificed at week 10 after operation and half at week 14 after operation. Femoral condyles were harvested for gross observation and histochemical measurement by O'Driscoll scoring system. Collagen type II was detected by immunohistochemistry and mRNA expressions of aggrecan and collagen type II cartilage by RT-PCR.
Both 10 and 14 weeks post-operation, the best results were observed in 4W group and the worst results appeared in 2W group. The histochemistry scores and the expressions of collagen type II and aggrecan were significantly higher in 4W group than that in other three groups (P<0.05).
Moderate exercise at a selected timing (approximately 4 weeks) after injury can significantly promote the healing of cartilage defects but may hamper the repair process if performed too early while delayed intervention by moderate exercise may reduce its benefits in repair of the defects.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90858. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090858 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Some concerns could be raised about the feasibility of RT and in particular high-intensity RT in unfit overweight subjects (LaForgia et al., 2006), but there is experimental evidence supporting the suitability of RT in such individuals (Sothern et al., 2000; Bouchard et al., 2009; McGuigan et al., 2009; Ibanez et al., 2010; Idoate et al., 2011; Kreider et al., 2011; Thornton et al., 2011; Willis et al., 2012). More recently, our group has demonstrated the safety and feasibility , after a familiarization period, of high-intensity resistance training in sedentary and overweight subjects (Paoli et al., 2010, 2013a,b) "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although resistance training (RT) has long been accepted as a means for developing and maintaining muscular strength, endurance, power and muscle mass, its beneficial relationship with health factors and chronic disease has only recently been recognized in the scientific literature. Prior to 1990, resistance training was not a part of the recommended guidelines for exercise training and rehabilitation for either the American Heart Association or the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). In 1990, the ACSM recognized resistance training as a significant component of a comprehensive fitness programme for healthy adults of all ages, a position subsequently confirmed few years after. At present, even though interest in clinical applications of RT is increasing, there are still some concerns, among physicians, about the use of this exercise methodology in weight control programmes. This review aims to explore the metabolic effects of RT and its efficacy and feasibility in overweight subjects.
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