Effect of tourniquet application on deep vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty.
ABSTRACT There is a great deal of controversy about the effect of tourniquets on development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).
We investigated the incidence of postoperative DVT after TKA with or without the use of a tourniquet. The patients were 48 consecutive patients undergoing primary ipsilateral cemented TKA for osteoarthritis. Group A (21 patients) underwent the operation without a tourniquet, and Group B (27 patients) underwent the operation with a tourniquet. Ultrasonography to assess DVT was performed before and after the operation.
Group B had less intraoperative and total blood loss than Group A. Postoperative DVT was detected in 81.3% of all cases, and symptomatic pulmonary embolism occurred in 1.7%. Most of DVT was found in the calf vein. There was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative DVT between the two groups.
We conclude that the use of a tourniquet is beneficial, because it decreases perioperative blood loss and does not increase the risk of DVT. The incidence of DVT after TKA is considerably high with or without use of a tourniquet. Therefore, prevention and early detection of DVT are important for prevention of fatal pulmonary thromboembolism.
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ABSTRACT: Many studies have investigated the effect of tourniquet release time and closed suction drainage in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, controversy remains as to the advisability of preclosure tourniquet release and the advisability of closed suction drain use following total knee arthroplasty. The aim of the study was to investigate if there is a benefit of performing tourniquet release after skin closure, along with drain clamping, for the first 6h following TKA. Ninety-six patients underwent TKA between May 2009 and April 2010. Fourteen of these were excluded because of systemic diseases and simultaneous bilateral TKA. Twenty-nine of these were excluded due to use of a patellar component and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-sacrificing systems. Thus, 53 patients that underwent PCL-retaining cemented TKA were reviewed retrospectively. In the control group (group C), the tourniquet was released before skin closure, an attempt at hemostasis was made, and a compressive bandage was applied. The drain was not clamped in these patients. The test group of 23 patients (group T) had tourniquet release after skin closure and after the compressive bandage was applied. The drain was clamped for the first 6h after surgery. The two groups were compared as to the amount of drained blood, postoperative change in hemoglobin, postoperative complications, and knee function. We found that drained blood and hemoglobin drop were significantly lower in group T compared with group C. There was no difference regarding postoperative complications and knee function. We conclude that tourniquet release after skin closure and compressive dressing followed by 6h of drain clamping reduces postoperative blood loss in TKR surgery.HSS Journal 02/2014; 10(1):2-5.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effects of a tourniquet in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The study was done by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of a tourniquet in TKA. All related articles which were published up to June 2013 from Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails were identified. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed by the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The meta-analysis was performed using Cochrane RevMan software version 5.1. Thirteen RCTs that involved a total of 689 patients with 689 knees were included in the meta-analysis, which were divided into two groups. The tourniquet group included 351 knees and the non-tourniquet group included 338 knees. The meta-analysis showed that using a tourniquet in TKA could reduce intraoperative blood loss (weighted mean difference (WMD), -198.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), -279.82 to -116.60; P < 0.01) but did not decrease the calculated blood loss (P = 0.80), which indicates the actual blood loss. Although TKA with a tourniquet could save the operation time for 4.57 min compared to TKA without a tourniquet (WMD, -4.57; 95% CI, -7.59 to -1.56; P < 0.01), it had no clinical significance. Meanwhile, the use of tourniquet could not reduce the possibility of blood transfusion (P > 0.05). Postoperative knee range of motion (ROM) in tourniquet group was 10.41[degree sign] less than that in the non-tourniquet group in early stage (<=10 days after surgery) (WMD, -10.41; 95% CI, -16.41 to -4.41; P < 0.01). Moreover, the use of a tourniquet increased the risk of either thrombotic events (risk ratio (RR), 5.00; 95% CI, 1.31 to 19.10; P = 0.02) or non-thrombotic complications (RR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.12 to 3.67; P = 0.02). TKA without a tourniquet was superior to TKA with a tourniquet in thromboembolic events and the other related complications. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the actual blood loss. TKA with a tourniquet might hinder patients' early postoperative rehabilitation exercises.Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 03/2014; 9(1):13. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Surgical treatment of osteoarthritis with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) usually takes place in a complete bloodless field using a tourniquet. However, doing the surgery without a tourniquet may reduce muscle damage, post-surgery pain and led to improved functional rehabilitation and mobilization.Methods/design: A prospective, blinded, parallel-group, controlled superiority trial, with balanced randomization [1:1]. Patients aged 50 or older eligible for primary TKA for osteoarthritis will be consecutively recruited from Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark. A total of 80 patients will be randomly allocated to TKA with or without tourniquet application providing 40 patients for each of the two treatment arms. The tourniquet assisted TKA group will have an automatic, micro-processor-based pneumatic tourniquet inflated around the thigh during surgery. The non-tourniquet assisted TKA group will have surgery performed without application of a tourniquet. The primary aim is to compare tourniquet assisted to non-tourniquet assisted TKA on patient-reported physical function (KOOS-ADL). The secondary aim is to compare post-surgery pain, function in sports and recreation, quality of life, and performance-based physical function. The explorative outcomes include; use of pain medication, single-fiber muscle damage, and changes in mechanical muscle function. The primary endpoint will be at 3-months following surgical treatment, and the time-point for analysis of the primary outcome. However, follow-up will continue up to 1 year, and provide medium-term results. The treatment effect (difference in KOOS-ADL) will be analyzed using a random effects regression model, crude and adjusted results will be reported, if needed. Analyses will be based on the intention-to-treat (ITT). Subsequent per-protocol analysis may be necessary in the event of a substantial number of patients (> 15%) being lost during follow-up. The number needed to treat (NNT) for a positive effect of treatment (>10 points on KOOS-ADL) will be reported. This is the first randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of tourniquet assisted TKA on patient-reported physical function supported by a range of performance-based secondary outcome measures. As such it will provide high quality evidence that may help determine whether tourniquet should be used in future TKA procedures in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials NCT01891266.BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 03/2014; 15(1):110. · 1.88 Impact Factor