Further development of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised.

School of Nursing, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-2026, USA.
Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing (Impact Factor: 1.2). 11/2006; 35(6):735-45. DOI: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2006.00094.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To describe the newly developed item coding and computation of the total score for the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised along with recommended cutoff points.
Methodologic research.
Obstetrician and gynecologist offices in the Pacific Northwest.
This longitudinal study included 139 women; the study began in the participant's third trimester of pregnancy and ended at 8 months after childbirth.
The participants completed the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised in their third trimester of pregnancy and again at 2 and 6 months after childbirth. Postpartum depression symptoms were measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and psychiatric nurse practitioner interview at 2 and 6 months after childbirth.
Sensitivity and specificity of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised at three points: prenatal and 2 and 6 months after childbirth.
The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the Prenatal Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised performed well and explained 67% of the variance of postpartum depressive symptomatology as measured by Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores. The Prenatal Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised yielded a sensitivity of .76 and a specificity of .54 at a cutoff score of 10.5.
A cutoff score of 10.5 is recommended when using the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised during pregnancy. Further research needs to be conducted on recommended cutoff scores for use of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised during the postpartum period.

Download full-text


Available from: Michael J Rice, Mar 04, 2015
  • Source
    • "The original developer of the PDPI-R provided scoring directions for both the prenatal version and the postpartum version [24] and evaluated the psychometric properties of the PDPI-R [6]. The prenatal PDPI-R yielded a sensitivity of 0.76 and a specificity of 0.54 at a cutoff score of 10.5 (Beck et al. 2006). The predictive validity of the PDPI-R a screening instrument for PPD was determined in a large sample of Italian women [26]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is a global phenomenon. Depression in the first month following delivery is experienced by 20% of mothers in Japan. Therefore, a screening instrument that identifies the risk for depression during pregnancy and in the early postpartum period is required for primary prevention. The aims of this study were to develop the Japanese version of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R-J) and determine its predictive validity during pregnancy and one month after delivery. Methods In order to develop the inventory, two bilingual translators translated the PDPI-R into Japanese. Then, back translation was done and a thorough discussion with the original developer was conducted in order to establish semantic equivalence. After the PDPI-R-J was developed, the study used a prospective cohort design. A total of 84 women in their eighth month of pregnancy participated in the study. Seventy-six mothers completed the PDPI-R-J at the first month after childbirth. Women were diagnosed using Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) to determine the presence of minor or major depression at the first month after childbirth and the receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted to evaluate the predictive capacity of PDPI-R-J. Results Of the 76 mothers who completed the PDPI-R-J during the first-month assessment, 16 mothers (21%) met the PPD criteria. The prenatal version of the PDPI-R-J administered during pregnancy accurately predicted 62.8% of PPD (95% CI 0.48–0.77) and the postpartum version administered at the first month after delivery predicted 82.0% of PPD (95% CI 0.71–0.93). The cutoffs identified were 5.5 for the prenatal version and 7.5 for the postpartum version. The PDPI-R-J postpartum version, which includes items relating to the infant, increased the predictive validity of PPD (0.67 to 0.82). Comments from the participants included that the use of the PDPI-R-J enhanced the chance to openly communicate about their history and risks for depression with the researchers, if any existed. Conclusions The PDPI-R-J was found to be a useful and valid screening tool for predicting PPD. Both the prenatal and postpartum versions should be continuously administered to mothers because delivery and infant-related factors affect the potential for PPD.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 05/2013; 13(1):112. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-13-112 · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The PDPI-R Full Version (Prenatal plus Postpartum Versions) is used after delivery and includes all 10 factors of the Prenatal Version plus three additional risk factors: child care stress, infant temperament and maternity blues. The total score of the Full Version ranges between 0 and 39 (Beck et al., 2006). The higher the score, the more risk factors for PPD a subject has. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Literature underlines that the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is the most common measure to assess postpartum depression (PPD) worldwide and suggests that the rate of false positives is high. Furthermore, the EPDS does not distinguish between depression and anxiety. This study describes different definitions of PPD and whether pregnancy anxiety disorders are risk factors for different PPDs at both 1month and 1year postpartum. 1066 women were recruited during pregnancy and followed until the 12th month postpartum (N=500). Women were administered the SCID and completed the PDPI-R during pregnancy. During the postpartum women who had an EPDS score of 13 or more were administered the SCID to distinguish minor or major depressive episodes (mMD) from false positives. 41.5% and 44.9% of the PPD assessed with the EPDS were false positives at the 1st month and during the 1st year postpartum respectively. The difference observed in prevalence rates estimated with EPDS and SCID was statistically significant both at the 1st month and during the 1st year postpartum. Overall the effect of anxiety diagnoses in predicting PPD was stronger at the 1st month than during the 1st year postpartum. The role of panic disorder is associated both with probable depression (ES=0.82) and with mMD (ES=0.87) at the 1st month postpartum, and predicted mMD during the 1st year postpartum (ES=0.71). OCD predicted false positives at the 1st month postpartum (ES=0.89). An antenatal screening of specific anxiety diagnoses could be extremely useful for the prevention of possible postpartum distress outcomes.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2010; 127(1-3):177-84. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2010.05.015 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Antenatal depression carries a high risk of morbidity for the mother, the foetus, and the newborn: it is associated to low Apgar scores, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, neonatal growth retardation, low birth weight, perinatal complications, sudden infant death; furthermore , the underlying mental disorder can induce unhealthy maternal behaviors like smoking and use of alcoholics, as well as an increased risk of suicide (Bonari et al., 2004; Einarson et al., 2005, for a review). Some studies have evidenced an increase in the risk of postpartum depression with untreated depression in pregnancy (Beck et al., 2006), and with behavioral disturbances in children such as suicidal behavior, conduct problems, emotional instability (American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists, 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To review studies conducted to establish the risk of spontaneous abortion (SA) in women exposed to antidepressant drugs (ADs) during early pregnancy. By using different search terms, PubMed, Toxline, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane library databases were searched from January 1980 to March 2008, to identify studies assessing the risk of SA in women exposed to different classes of ADs during the first trimester of pregnancy. Ten studies over 21 identified were selected for the analysis. All were performed prospectively and included as control group unexposed women, or exposed to non-teratogenic drugs or to placebo. In seven studies a depressive episode was specified as the reason for which the drug was prescribed, while the time of exposure was in nine. Only three studies over ten selected reported a significant association between an increased rate of SAs and early pregnancy exposure to some ADs. Many methodological flaws in the study design were found in all studies considered. Given this background and a lack of strong evidence on this issue, further prospective and better designed studies are needed to assess the risk of SA in pregnant women exposed to ADs against the risk of an untreated maternal depression.
    Epidemiologia e psichiatria sociale 09/2009; 18(3):240-7. DOI:10.1017/S1121189X0000052X · 3.16 Impact Factor
Show more