Further Development of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised

School of Nursing, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-2026, USA.
Journal of Obstetric Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing (Impact Factor: 1.02). 11/2006; 35(6):735-45. DOI: 10.1111/j.1552-6909.2006.00094.x
Source: PubMed


To describe the newly developed item coding and computation of the total score for the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised along with recommended cutoff points.
Methodologic research.
Obstetrician and gynecologist offices in the Pacific Northwest.
This longitudinal study included 139 women; the study began in the participant's third trimester of pregnancy and ended at 8 months after childbirth.
The participants completed the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised in their third trimester of pregnancy and again at 2 and 6 months after childbirth. Postpartum depression symptoms were measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and psychiatric nurse practitioner interview at 2 and 6 months after childbirth.
Sensitivity and specificity of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised at three points: prenatal and 2 and 6 months after childbirth.
The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the Prenatal Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised performed well and explained 67% of the variance of postpartum depressive symptomatology as measured by Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores. The Prenatal Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised yielded a sensitivity of .76 and a specificity of .54 at a cutoff score of 10.5.
A cutoff score of 10.5 is recommended when using the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised during pregnancy. Further research needs to be conducted on recommended cutoff scores for use of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised during the postpartum period.

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Available from: Michael J Rice, Mar 04, 2015
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    • "The original developer of the PDPI-R provided scoring directions for both the prenatal version and the postpartum version [24] and evaluated the psychometric properties of the PDPI-R [6]. The prenatal PDPI-R yielded a sensitivity of 0.76 and a specificity of 0.54 at a cutoff score of 10.5 (Beck et al. 2006). The predictive validity of the PDPI-R a screening instrument for PPD was determined in a large sample of Italian women [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is a global phenomenon. Depression in the first month following delivery is experienced by 20% of mothers in Japan. Therefore, a screening instrument that identifies the risk for depression during pregnancy and in the early postpartum period is required for primary prevention. The aims of this study were to develop the Japanese version of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R-J) and determine its predictive validity during pregnancy and one month after delivery. Methods In order to develop the inventory, two bilingual translators translated the PDPI-R into Japanese. Then, back translation was done and a thorough discussion with the original developer was conducted in order to establish semantic equivalence. After the PDPI-R-J was developed, the study used a prospective cohort design. A total of 84 women in their eighth month of pregnancy participated in the study. Seventy-six mothers completed the PDPI-R-J at the first month after childbirth. Women were diagnosed using Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) to determine the presence of minor or major depression at the first month after childbirth and the receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted to evaluate the predictive capacity of PDPI-R-J. Results Of the 76 mothers who completed the PDPI-R-J during the first-month assessment, 16 mothers (21%) met the PPD criteria. The prenatal version of the PDPI-R-J administered during pregnancy accurately predicted 62.8% of PPD (95% CI 0.48–0.77) and the postpartum version administered at the first month after delivery predicted 82.0% of PPD (95% CI 0.71–0.93). The cutoffs identified were 5.5 for the prenatal version and 7.5 for the postpartum version. The PDPI-R-J postpartum version, which includes items relating to the infant, increased the predictive validity of PPD (0.67 to 0.82). Comments from the participants included that the use of the PDPI-R-J enhanced the chance to openly communicate about their history and risks for depression with the researchers, if any existed. Conclusions The PDPI-R-J was found to be a useful and valid screening tool for predicting PPD. Both the prenatal and postpartum versions should be continuously administered to mothers because delivery and infant-related factors affect the potential for PPD.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 05/2013; 13(1):112. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-13-112 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    • "Depression during pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, epidural analgesia, caesarean section, intensive ward admission, and disturbances in the child’s neurocognitive and socioemotional development [4]–[8]. Untreated depression during pregnancy is associated with a 6-fold risk increase of postpartum depression [4], [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and patterns of exposure to antidepressants before, during and after pregnancy in a cohort including all pregnant women in Denmark between 1997 and 2010. We performed a retrospective cohort study including 912 322 pregnancies. Information was retrieved from the Danish Birth Registry and The Register of Medicinal Product Statistics to identify women redeeming an antidepressant prescription during pregnancy. Exposure periods were based on standard treatment doses and dispensed pack sizes. We identified 19 740 pregnancies exposed to an antidepressant at some point during pregnancy. The rate of exposure increased from 0.2% in 1997 to 3.2% in 2010. We found that the rate of exposure was halved during the first 3 months of pregnancy. In contrast, we describe a clear increase in exposure after pregnancy among pre-delivery treatment-naïve women. In spite of uncertainty concerning antidepressants' safety during pregnancy we find a 16-fold increase in exposure rates between 1997 and 2010. The rates describe a sharp decrease in exposure during pregnancy that is probably caused by physicians' hesitation to prescribe antidepressants and women's fear of unwanted effects on the unborn child. More studies are needed to clarify the consequences of antidepressant discontinuation during pregnancy.
    PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e63034. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0063034 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "They also report more intense pregnancy-related negative feelings and fewer positive emotions than pregnant women without diabetes. In the first large-scale data collection using the newly developed postnatal questionnaire, we will also include the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory–Revised questionnaire (PDPI-R) [27,28]. Our intention will be to identify women with or at risk of postpartum depression and, as a secondary objective, to determine whether the newly developed questionnaires are capable of detecting those most at risk. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Life transitions are associated with high levels of stress affecting health behaviours among people with Type 1 diabetes. Transition to motherhood is a major transition with potential complications accelerated by pregnancy with risks of adverse childbirth outcomes and added anxiety and worries about pregnancy outcomes. Further, preparing and going through pregnancy requires vigilant attention to a diabetes management regimen and detailed planning of everyday activities with added stress on women. Psychological and social well-being during and after pregnancy are integral for good pregnancy outcomes for both mother and baby. The aim of this study is to establish the face and content validity of two novel measures assessing the well-being of women with type 1 diabetes in their transition to motherhood, 1) during pregnancy and 2) during the postnatal period. Methods The approach to the development of the Pregnancy and Postnatal Well-being in T1DM Transition questionnaires was based on a four-stage pre-testing process; systematic overview of literature, items development, piloting testing of questionnaire and refinement of questionnaire. The questionnaire was reviewed at every stage by expert clinicians, researchers and representatives from consumer groups. The cognitive debriefing approach confirmed relevance of issues and identified additional items. Results The literature review and interviews identified three main areas impacting on the women’s postnatal self-management; (1) psychological well-being; (2) social environment, (3) physical (maternal and fetal) well-being. The cognitive debriefing in pilot testing of the questionnaire identified that immediate postnatal period was difficult, particularly when the women were breastfeeding and felt depressed. Conclusions The questionnaires fill an important gap by systematically assessing the psychosocial needs of women with type 1 diabetes during pregnancy and in the immediate postnatal period. The questionnaires can be used in larger data collection to establish psychometric properties. The questionnaires potentially play a key role in prospective research to determine the self-management and psychological needs of women with type 1 diabetes transitioning to motherhood and to evaluate health education interventions.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 02/2013; 13(1):54. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-13-54 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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