Evaluation of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and multi-drug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from the urine of dogs with indwelling urinary catheters
ABSTRACT To determine the frequency of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs with indwelling urinary catheters in an intensive care unit (ICU) and the frequency of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli UTIs in those dogs.
All dogs in the ICU with an indwelling urinary catheter from January 2003 through December 2003.
Urine samples and rectal swab specimens were collected at admission and every 3 days until discharge from the hospital. Escherichia coli isolates from urine samples and rectal swab specimens and those from dogs that were temporally or spatially associated with dogs with MDR E coli UTIs underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed on MDR isolates from urine and rectal swab specimens.
Urinary catheters were placed in 137 dogs. Twenty-six UTIs were diagnosed, 15 on the day of admission and 11 after 3 or more days of catheterization. Of 12 dogs with E coli UTIs, 6 were infected at admission and 6 acquired the infection in the ICU. Two MDR E coli UTIs were detected, 1 of which was acquired in the ICU. One MDR E coli urinary isolate had an electrophoresis pattern similar to that of rectal isolates from the same dog. Urinary E coli isolates were most frequently resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin.
The ICU-acquired MDR E coli UTI likely originated from the dog's intestinal flora during hospitalization. Dogs that have been referred from a community practice may have MDR E coli UTIs at the time of admission.
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ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli is the most common uropathogen involved in urinary tract infection (UTI). Virulence of strains may differ, and may be enhanced by antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation, resulting in increased morbidity and recurrent infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro biofilm forming capacity of E. coli isolates from dogs with UTI, by using fluorescent in situ hybridization, and its association with virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance.BMC Research Notes 08/2014; 7(1):499. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-499
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ABSTRACT: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common nosocomial infection in dogs and a growing concern in veterinary hospitals as an increase in multidrug-resistant pathogens is reported. Despite the need for rational and prudent antimicrobial use, few peer-reviewed and published veterinary studies have investigated the pathogenic growth including susceptibility patterns of the isolated pathogens in canine SSIs. The first objective of the present study was to estimate the distribution of bacterial pathogens in dogs with SSI and to investigate whether this was influenced by type of surgical procedure (clean, clean-contaminated, contaminated or dirty), duration of hospitalization, wound classification and depth of the infection, or antimicrobial treatment. The second objective was to assess susceptibility patterns to clinically relevant antimicrobials. During three years, four animal referral hospitals and three small animal clinics submitted bacterial swabs from canine SSIs for culture and susceptibility, together with a questionnaire completed by the attending clinician. Approximately two thirds of the in total 194 isolates were staphylococci. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was the most prevalent finding (46%) followed by beta haemolytic Streptococcus spp. (24%). No associations between distribution of the isolated pathogens and classification of the surgical procedure, duration of hospitalization or depth of the SSI were shown, with the exception of Escherichia coli isolates being significantly more often found in deep wound infections than in superficial skin infections. Overall the possibilities of finding first generations antimicrobials to treat the SSIs included in the study were favorable, as the isolated pathogens were mostly without acquired antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance was uncommon. There were only three cases of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius-infections (one percent of all isolates), one case of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli-infection, and no methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. None of the investigated factors were shown to influence the distribution of bacterial pathogens. The majority of SSIs were caused by staphylococci, and S. pseudintermedius was the most prevalent pathogen. Based on the study results, use of first-line antimicrobials prior to receiving culture and susceptibility results is a rational empirical antimicrobial therapy for the studied dog population.
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ABSTRACT: Background Bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial therapy in dogs.A reported increase in multi-drug resistance in canine bacterial pathogens, including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) is of concern as antimicrobial resistance complicates therapy in dogs. In addition, it is a possible public health concern.The objectives of this study were to investigate the relative prevalence of pathogens in urine samples from dogs with urinary tract infection sampled at referral hospitals, clinics and mixed veterinary practices and to investigate if this was influenced by sample material or by contamination of the culture. The second objective was to assess the susceptibility patterns to clinically relevant antimicrobials and to investigate if this was influenced by whether the samples originated from smaller clinics or from referral hospitals and to perform active screening for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to ESC.Results Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated pathogen (68%) followed by staphylococci (11%). E. coli isolates were found significantly more often in pure culture than in contaminated samples. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were significantly more prevalent in pre-incubated samples compared to samples submitted as non-incubated media.Susceptibility to the majority of the tested first-line antimicrobials was common. Multiresistance was rare, and these isolates were all susceptible to at least one relevant antimicrobial. Isolates in samples from small animal clinics or mixed veterinary practices were less likely to be susceptible compared to isolates originating from referral animal hospitals. ESC-resistant Enterobacteriacae isolates were found in one per cent of the positive cultures. Bacteria with transferable ESC resistance were confirmed in one dog. The gene demonstrated was bla CMY2.Conclusions Choice of sample material might influence the possibility of detecting Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus aureus isolates in clinical cases of UTI in dogs. Based on the study results, use of first-line antimicrobials is a rational empirical antimicrobial therapy for the studied dog population. E. coli was the most prevalent pathogen, but prevalence of infection with ESC resistant Enterobacteriaceae including E. coli was low, as such isolates were found in only one per cent of the positive cultures.BMC Veterinary Research 09/2014; 10(1):217. DOI:10.1186/s12917-014-0217-4 · 1.74 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.