Gastric ezrin was initially identified as a phosphoprotein associated with parietal cell activation. To explore the nature of ezrin phosphorylation, proteins from resting and secreting gastric glands were subjected to two-dimensional SDS-PAGE. Histamine triggers acid secretion and a series of acidic isoforms of ezrin on two-dimensional SDS-PAGE. Mass spectrometric analysis of these acidic ezrin spots induced by stimulation suggests that Ser66 is phosphorylated. To determine whether Ser66 is a substrate of protein kinase A (PKA), recombinant proteins of ezrin, both wild type and S66A mutant, were incubated with the catalytic subunit of PKA and [32P]ATP. Incorporation of 32P into wild type but not the mutant ezrin verified that Ser66 is a substrate of PKA. In addition, expression of S66A mutant ezrin in cultured parietal cells attenuates the dilation of apical vacuolar membrane associated with stimulation by histamine, indicating that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of ezrin is necessary for acid secretion. In fact, expression of phosphorylation-like S66D mutant in parietal cells mimics histamine-stimulated apical vacuole remodeling. Further examination of H,K-ATPase distribution revealed a blockade of stimulation-induced proton pump mobilization in S66A but not S66D ezrin-expressing parietal cells. These data suggest that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of ezrin plays an important role in mediating the remodeling of the apical membrane cytoskeleton associated with acid secretion in parietal cells.
"The activated mutant plasmid pcDNA3/HA-moesinT558D mimicked the AGE-evoked endothelial response with formation of F-actin stress fiber and increase of endothelial monolayer permeability. These data are consistent with the results from Zhou et al, indicating that exogenously expressed meosin bears biochemical characteristics similar to endogenous protein . Although it is yet to rule out the possibility of AGE-induced tyrosine phosphorylation since the state of phosphotyrosine was not detected in this study, the results have demonstrated that threonine 558 is the phosphorylation site of moesin in AGE-stimulated endothelial cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the development of diabetes, especially diabetic complications, has been emphasized in many reports. Accumulation of AGEs in the vasculature triggers a series of morphological and functional changes in endothelial cells (ECs) and induces an increase of endothelial permeability. This study was to investigate the involvement of RhoA/ROCK-dependent moesin phosphorylation in endothelial abnormalities induced by AGEs.
Using human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs), the effects of human serum albumin modified-AGEs (AGE-HSA) on the endothelium were assessed by measuring monolayer permeability and staining of F-actin in HMVECs. Activations of RhoA and ROCK were determined by a luminescence-based assay and immunoblotting. Transfection of recombinant adenovirus that was dominant negative for RhoA (RhoA N19) was done to down-regulate RhoA expression, while adenovirus with constitutively activated RhoA (RhoA L63) was transfected to cause overexpression of RhoA in HMVECs. H-1152 was employed to specifically block activation of ROCK. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to further confirm the interaction of ROCK and its downstream target moesin. To identify AGE/ROCK-induced phosphorylation site in moesin, two mutants pcDNA3/HA-moesinT(558A) and pcDNA3/HA-moesinT(558D) were applied in endothelial cells.
The results showed that AGE-HSA increased the permeability of HMVEC monolayer and triggered the formation of F-actin-positive stress fibers. AGE-HSA enhanced RhoA activity as well as phosphorylation of ROCK in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Down-regulation of RhoA expression with RhoA N19 transfection abolished these AGE-induced changes, while transfection of RhoA L63 reproduced the AGE-evoked changes. H-1152 attenuated the AGE-induced alteration in monolayer permeability and cytoskeleton. The results also confirmed the AGE-induced direct interaction of ROCK and moesin. Thr558 was further identified as the phosphorylating site of moesin in AGE-evoked endothelial responses.
These results confirm the involvement of RhoA/ROCK pathway and subsequent moesin Thr558 phosphorylation in AGE-mediated endothelial dysfunction.
"ATPase in the gastric parietal cells by a mechanism dependent on PKA activation  . Although it has been shown that gastrin regulates ezrin expression by parietal cells in gastrin deficient mice , the effects of hypergastrinemia on ezrin expression and localization have not been yet studied. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical for embryonic development and in differentiation, proliferation, and maintenance of multiple adult tissues. De-regulation of the Hh pathway is associated with birth defects and cancer. In the gastrointestinal tract, Hh ligands Sonic (Shh) and Indian (Ihh), as well as the receptor Patched (Ptch1), and transcription factors of Glioblastoma family (Gli) are all expressed during development. In the adult, Shh expression is restricted to the stomach and colon, while Ihh expression occurs throughout the luminal gastrointestinal tract, its expression being highest in the proximal duodenum. Several studies have demonstrated a requirement for Hh signaling during gastrointestinal tract development. However to date, the specific role of the Hh pathway in the adult stomach and intestine is not completely understood. The current review will place into context the implications of recent published data related to the biochemistry and cell biology of Hh signaling on the luminal gastrointestinal tract during development, normal physiology and subsequently carcinogenesis.
"We have previously shown that PKA binds to and phosphorylates merlin (Gro¨nholm et al., 2003; Alfthan et al., 2004). PKA is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates the activity of several proteins, including the ERM family member ezrin (Zhou et al., 2003). The cyclic AMP–PKA pathway plays a role in cell division and actin cytoskeleton remodeling (Howe, 2004), and activation of PKA promotes cell growth and cell cycle progression in Schwann cells (Kim et al., 1997), the cells susceptible to tumor formation in the NF2 disease. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the neurofibromatosis 2 tumor suppressor gene (NF2) encoding merlin (moesin-ezrin-radixin like-protein) induce tumors of the nervous system. Merlin localizes to the cell membrane where it links the actin cytoskeleton to membrane proteins. Cell proliferation is regulated by merlin in many cell types, but merlin's tumor suppressor function still remains unclear. Phosphorylation has been suggested to regulate merlin's activity. The C-terminal serine 518 is phosphorylated both by p21-activated kinases (PAKs) and protein kinase A (PKA). In this work, we identify a novel PKA phosphorylation site, serine 10, in the N terminus of merlin. We show that a non-phosphorylatable form of serine 10 (S10A) affects cellular morphology. Regulation of this site also influences actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics in vivo, as merlin S10A reduces the amount of cellular F-actin and merlin S10D stabilizes F-actin filaments. By using a wound-healing assay and live cell imaging, we demonstrate that dephosphorylation of serine 10 leads to defects in migration, possibly through altered ability of the cells to form lamellipodia. This study suggests a role for merlin in mediating PKA-induced changes of the actin cytoskeleton.
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