Growth factor treatment and genetic manipulation stimulate neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis by endogenous neural progenitors in the injured adult spinal cord.
ABSTRACT Neurons and oligodendrocytes are highly vulnerable to various insults, and their spontaneous replacement occurs to only a limited extent after damage in the adult spinal cord. The environment of injured tissue is thus thought to restrict the regenerative capacity of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells; strategies for overcoming such restrictions remain to be developed. Here, we combined growth factor treatment and genetic manipulation to stimulate neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis by endogenous progenitors in vivo. The recombinant retrovirus pMXIG, which was designed to coexpress green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and a neurogenic/gliogenic transcription factor, was directly injected into the injured spinal cord parenchyma to manipulate proliferative cells in situ. We found that cells expressing Olig2, Nkx2.2, and NG2 were enriched among virus-infected, GFP-positive (GFP+) cells. Moreover, a fraction of GFP+ cells formed neurospheres and differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in vitro, demonstrating that GFP retroviruses indeed infected endogenous neural progenitors in vivo. Neuronal differentiation of control virus-infected cells did not occur at a detectable level in the injured spinal cord. We found, however, that direct administration of fibroblast growth factor 2 and epidermal growth factor into lesioned tissue could induce a significant fraction of GFP-labeled cells to express immature neuronal markers. Moreover, retrovirus-mediated overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors Neurogenin2 and Mash1, together with growth factor treatment, enhanced the production and maturation of new neurons and oligodendrocytes, respectively. These results demonstrate that endogenous neural progenitors can be manipulated to replace neurons and oligodendrocytes lost to insults in the injured spinal cord.
SourceAvailable from: Ulises Gomez-Pinedo11/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Previously, we have demonstrated a role for Fgf in spinal cord regeneration in both zebrafish and mouse. We have shown that exogenous Fgf2 treatment attenuates astrocytic gliosis and induces glia cells to become progenitors that undergo neurogenesis as well as differentiating into bipolar astrocytes that support axonal regeneration (Goldshmit et al., 2014; Goldshmit et al., 2012). One of the downstream signalling target genes of Fgf is spry4, which acts as a feedback inhibitor for Fgf signalling. In this study we examined the effects of increased endogenous Fgf signalling, in spry4-/- mice, on the early events that occur after spinal cord injury. We demonstrate that in spry4-/- mice inflammatory responses, such as TNFα secretion and macrophage/neutrophil invasion into the lesion site are reduced. In addition, astrocytic gliosis is attenuated and neuronal survival is increased. These results further support a pro-regenerative role of Fgf after spinal cord injury, and suggest that increased endogenous Fgf signalling after spinal cord injury may contribute to functional recovery and therefore presents this pathway as a target for new therapy development. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Neuroscience 12/2014; 287. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.12.020 · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Following spinal lesion, connections between the supra-spinal centers and spinal neuronal networks can be disturbed, which causes the deterioration or even the complete absence of sublesional locomotor activity. In mammals, possibilities of locomotion restoration are much reduced since descending tracts either have very poor regenerative ability or do not regenerate at all. However, in lower vertebrates, there is spontaneous locomotion recuperation after complete spinal cord transection at the mid-trunk level. This phenomenon depends on a translesional descending axon re-growth originating from the brainstem. On the other hand, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying spinal cord regeneration and in parallel, locomotion restoration of the animal, are not well known. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) plays an important role in different processes such as neural induction, neuronal progenitor proliferation and their differentiation. Studies had shown an over expression of this growth factor after tail amputation. Nestin, a protein specific for intermediate filaments, is considered an early marker for neuronal precursors. It has been recently shown that its expression increases after tail transection in urodeles. Using this marker and western blots, our results show that the number of FGF-2 and FGFR2 mRNAs increases and is correlated with an increase in neurogenesis especially in the central canal lining cells immediately after lesion. This study also confirms that spinal cord re-growth through the lesion site initially follows a rostrocaudal direction. In addition to its role known in neuronal differentiation, FGF-2 could be implicated in the differentiation of ependymal cells into neuronal progenitors.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:458. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2014.00458 · 4.18 Impact Factor