Article

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded protein kinase and its interaction with K-bZIP.

University of California-Davis, Cancer Center, Research III Room 2400B, 4645 2nd Ave., Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.65). 03/2007; 81(3):1072-82. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01473-06
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The oncogenic herpesvirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, also identified as human herpesvirus 8, contains genes producing proteins that control transcription and influence cell signaling. Open reading frame 36 (ORF36) of this virus encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase, which is designated the viral protein kinase (vPK). Our recent efforts to elucidate the role of vPK in the viral life cycle have focused on identifying viral protein substrates and determining the effects of vPK-mediated phosphorylation on specific steps in viral replication. The vPK gene was transcribed into 4.2-kb and 3.6-kb mRNAs during the early and late phases of viral reactivation. vPK is colocalized with viral DNA replication/transcription compartments as marked by a polymerase processivity factor, and K-bZIP, a protein known to bind the viral DNA replication origin (Ori-Lyt) and to regulate viral transcription. The vPK physically associated with and strongly phosphorylated K-bZIP at threonine 111, a site also recognized by the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2. Both K-bZIP and vPK were corecruited to viral promoters targeted by K-bZIP as well as to the Ori-Lyt region. Phosphorylation of K-bZIP by vPK had a negative impact on K-bZIP transcription repression activity. The extent of posttranslational modification of K-bZIP by sumoylation, a process that influences its repression function, was decreased by vPK phosphorylation at threonine 111. Our data thus identify a new role of vPK as a modulator of viral transcription.

Full-text

Available from: Albert Van Geelen, Jun 06, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
146 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) primarily persists as a latent episome in infected cells. During latent infection, only a limited number of viral genes are expressed that help to maintain the viral episome and prevent lytic reactivation. The latent KSHV genome persists as a highly ordered chromatin structure with bivalent chromatin marks at the promoter-regulatory region of the major immediate-early gene promoter. Various stimuli can induce chromatin modifications to an active euchromatic epigenetic mark, leading to the expression of genes required for the transition from the latent to the lytic phase of KSHV life cycle. Enhanced replication and transcription activator (RTA) gene expression triggers a cascade of events, resulting in the modulation of various cellular pathways to support viral DNA synthesis. RTA also binds to the origin of lytic DNA replication to recruit viral, as well as cellular, proteins for the initiation of the lytic DNA replication of KSHV. In this review we will discuss some of the pivotal genetic and epigenetic factors that control KSHV reactivation from the transcriptionally restricted latent program.
    Viruses 01/2015; 7(1):116-153. DOI:10.3390/v7010116 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Small Ubiquitin-related MOdifier (SUMO) modification was initially identified as a reversible post-translational modification that affects the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including signal transduction, protein trafficking, chromosome segregation, and DNA repair. Increasing evidence suggests that the SUMO system also plays an important role in regulating chromatin organization and transcription. It is thus not surprising that double-stranded DNA viruses, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), have exploited SUMO modification as a means of modulating viral chromatin remodeling during the latent-lytic switch. In addition, SUMO regulation allows the disassembly and assembly of promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), an intrinsic antiviral host defense, during the viral replication cycle. Overcoming PML-NB-mediated cellular intrinsic immunity is essential to allow the initial transcription and replication of the herpesvirus genome after de novo infection. As a consequence, KSHV has evolved a way as to produce multiple SUMO regulatory viral proteins to modulate the cellular SUMO environment in a dynamic way during its life cycle. Remarkably, KSHV encodes one gene product (K-bZIP) with SUMO-ligase activities and one gene product (K-Rta) that exhibits SUMO-targeting ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) activity. In addition, at least two viral products are sumoylated that have functional importance. Furthermore, sumoylation can be modulated by other viral gene products, such as the viral protein kinase Orf36. Interference with the sumoylation of specific viral targets represents a potential therapeutic strategy when treating KSHV, as well as other oncogenic herpesviruses. Here, we summarize the different ways KSHV exploits and manipulates the cellular SUMO system and explore the multi-faceted functions of SUMO during KSHV's life cycle and pathogenesis.
    12/2014; 6(4):1905-1924. DOI:10.3390/cancers6041905
  • Source
    Infectious Agents and Cancer 01/2012; 7(1). DOI:10.1186/1750-9378-7-S1-O8 · 2.07 Impact Factor