Pitx2 promotes development of splanchnic mesoderm-derived branchiomeric muscle.
ABSTRACT Recent experiments, showing that both cranial paraxial and splanchnic mesoderm contribute to branchiomeric muscle and cardiac outflow tract (OFT) myocardium, revealed unexpected complexity in development of these muscle groups. The Pitx2 homeobox gene functions in both cranial paraxial mesoderm, to regulate eye muscle, and in splanchnic mesoderm to regulate OFT development. Here, we investigated Pitx2 in branchiomeric muscle. Pitx2 was expressed in branchial arch core mesoderm and both Pitx2 null and Pitx2 hypomorphic embryos had defective branchiomeric muscle. Lineage tracing with a Pitx2cre allele indicated that Pitx2 mutant descendents moved into the first branchial arch. However, markers of both undifferentiated core mesoderm and specified branchiomeric muscle were absent. Moreover, lineage tracing with a Myf5cre allele indicated that branchiomeric muscle specification and differentiation were defective in Pitx2 mutants. Conditional inactivation in mice and manipulation of Pitx2 expression in chick mandible cultures revealed an autonomous function in expansion and survival of branchial arch mesoderm.
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ABSTRACT: Skeletal myogenesis has been and is currently under extensive study in both mammals and teleosts, with the latter providing a good model for skeletal myogenesis because of their flexible and conserved genome. Parallel investigations of muscle studies using both these models have strongly accelerated the advances in the field. However, when transferring the knowledge from one model to the other, it is important to take into account both their similarities and differences. The main difficulties in comparing mammals and teleosts arise from their different temporal development. Conserved aspects can be seen for muscle developmental origin and segmentation, and for the presence of multiple myogenic waves. Among the divergences, many fish have an indeterminate growth capacity throughout their entire life span, which is absent in mammals, thus implying different post-natal growth mechanisms. This review covers the current state of the art on myogenesis, with a focus on the most conserved and divergent aspects between mammals and teleosts.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 03/2014; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a congenital anomaly disorder characterized by craniofacial anomalies including velo-pharyngeal insufficiency, facial muscle hypotonia and feeding difficulties, in part due to hypoplasia of the branchiomeric muscles. Inactivation of both alleles of mouse Tbx1, encoding a T-box transcription factor, deleted on chromosome 22q11.2, results in reduction or loss of branchiomeric muscles. To identify downstream pathways, we performed gene profiling of microdissected pharyngeal arch one (PA1) from Tbx1(+/+) and Tbx1(-/-) embryos at stages E9.5 (somites 20-25) and E10.5 (somites 30-35). Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors were reduced, while secondary heart field genes were increased in expression early and were replaced by an increase of expression of cellular stress response genes later, suggesting a change in gene expression patterns or cell populations. Lineage tracing studies using Mesp1(Cre) and T-Cre drivers showed that core mesoderm cells within PA1 were present at E9.5 but were greatly reduced by E10.5 in Tbx1(-/-) embryos. Using Tbx1(Cre) knock-in mice, we found that cells are lost due to apoptosis, consistent with increase of expression of cellular stress response genes at E10.5. To determine whether Tbx1 is required autonomously in the core mesoderm, we used Mesp1(Cre) and T-Cre mesodermal drivers in combination to inactivate Tbx1 and found reduction or loss of branchiomeric muscles from PA1. These mechanistic studies inform us that Tbx1 is required upstream of key myogenic genes needed for core mesoderm cell survival and fate, between E9.5-E10.5, resulting in formation of the branchiomeric muscles.Human Molecular Genetics 04/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pitx2 is a paired-related homeobox gene that is expressed in muscle progenitors during myogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that overexpression of Pitx2c isoform in myoblasts maintained these cells with a high proliferative capacity and completely blocked terminal differentiation by inducing high Pax3 expression levels (Martinez et al., 2006). We now report that Pitx2c-mediated proliferation vs. differentiation effect is maintained during in vivo myogenesis. In vivo Pitx2c loss of function leads to a decrease in Pax3+/Pax7- cell population in the embryo accompanied by an increase of Pax3+/Pax7+ cells. Pitx2c transient-transfection experiments further supported the notion that Pitx2c can modulate Pax3/Pax7 expression. Pitx2c but not Pitx3 controls Pax3/Pax7 expression, although redundant roles are elicited at the terminal myoblast differentiation. Contrary to Pitx2c, Pitx3 does not regulate cell proliferation or Pax3 expression, demonstrating the specificity of Pitx2c mediating these actions in myoblasts. Furthermore we demonstrated that Pitx2c modulates Pax3 by repressing miR27 expression and that Pax3-miR-27 modulation mediated by Pitx2c is independent of Pitx2c effects on cell proliferation. Therefore, this study sheds light on previously unknown function of Pitx2c balancing the different myogenic progenitor populations during myogenesis.Developmental Biology 09/2011; 357(1):165-78. · 3.87 Impact Factor