The pro-inflammatory oxidant hypochlorous acid induces Bax-dependent mitochondrial permeabilisation and cell death through AIF-/EndoG-dependent pathways
ABSTRACT At sites of chronic inflammation, such as in the inflamed rheumatoid joint, activated neutrophils release hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the enzyme myeloperoxidase to catalyse the formation of hypochlorous acid (HOCl). 3-chlorotyrosine, a marker of HOCl in vivo, has been observed in synovial fluid proteins from rheumatoid arthritis patients. However the mechanisms of HOCl-induced cytotxicity are unknown. We determined the molecular mechanisms by which HOCl induced cell death in human mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) differentiated into a chondrocytic phenotype as a model of human cartilage cells and show that HOCl induced rapid Bax conformational change, mitochondrial permeability and release of intra-mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins which resulted in nuclear translocation of AIF and EndoG. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Bax substantially prevented mitochondrial permeability, release of intra-mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins. Cell death was inhibited by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Bax, AIF or EndoG. Although we observed several biochemical markers of apoptosis, caspase activation was not detected either by western blotting, fluorescence activity assays or by using caspase inhibitors to inhibit cell death. This was further supported by findings that (1) in vitro exposure of recombinant human caspases to HOCl caused significant inhibition of caspase activity and (2) the addition of HOCl to staurosporine-treated MPCs inhibited the activity of cellular caspases. Our results show for the first time that HOCl induced Bax-dependent mitochondrial permeability which led to cell death without caspase activity by processes involving AIF/EndoG-dependent pathways. Our study provides a novel insight into the potential mechanisms of cell death in the inflamed human joint.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to observe the apoptosis-inducing effect and mechanism of baicalin on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. The inhibitory effect of baicalin on the growth of HeLa cells was measured by MTT assay, and cell proliferation and migration was analyzed by cell scratch assay. Morphological changes of apoptotic cells were viewed by the light microscope and electron microscope, and cell growth arrest was confirmed by flow cytometry. Moreover, Western blot was used for investigating the expression of apoptosis related proteins; spectrophotometry was used to examine Caspase-3 activation. Our results showed that baicalin could inhibit the proliferation of HeLa Cells via induction of apoptosis in a time and dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). Apoptotic signaling induced by baicalin was characterized by up-regulating Bax, Fas, FasL and Caspase-8 protein expression, and down-regulating of Bcl-2 protein expression. These results indicated that baicalin-induced apoptosis involved activation Caspase-3 in HeLa cells through the intracellular mitochondrial pathway and the surface death receptor pathway.Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research (IJPR) 01/2015; 14(1):251-61. · 0.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a brominated flame retardant, is detected commonly in aquatic environments, where it is thought to be highly toxic to the development of aquatic life. In this study, zebrafish embryos and larvae were used to investigate the protective effects of puerarin after exposure to TBBPA. Malformation, blood flow disorders, pericardial edema, and spawn coagulation rates increased, whereas survival decreased significantly after exposure to 0.5 and 1.0 mg L−1 TBBPA. The measured indices of morphological toxicity improved after treatment with puerarin. TBBPA also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose-dependent manner. Acridine orange staining results revealed that TBBPA exposure caused cardiomyocyte apoptosis and induced the expression of three proapoptotic genes: P53, Bax, and Caspase9. In contrast, the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2 was down-regulated. When genes related to cardiac development were assessed, the expression of Tbx1, Raldh2, and Bmp2b changed after exposure to the combination of TBBPA and puerarin. These results suggest that TBBPA induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ROS production, resulting in cardiac developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos or larvae. Therefore, puerarin regulates the expression of cardiac developmental genes, such as Tbx1, Bmp2b, and Raldh2 by inhibiting ROS production, and subsequently modulates cardiac development after the exposure of zebrafish larvae to TBBPA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.Environmental Toxicology 03/2014; DOI:10.1002/tox.21975 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a novel fluorescent sensor for real-time and continuous monitoring of the variation of bisulfide in microdialysis effluents by using a nanoparticle-glutathione-fluorescein isothiocyanate (AuNP-GSH-FITC) probe coupled with on-line droplet-based microfluidic chip. The AuNP-GSH-FITC fluorescent probe was firstly developed and used for bisulfide detection in bulk solution by quantitative real-time PCR, which achieved a linear working range from 0.1μM to 5.0μM and a limit of detection of ~50nM. The response time was less than 2min. With the aid of co-immobilized thiol-polyethylene glycol, the probe exhibited excellent stability and reproducibility in high salinity solutions, including artificial cerebrospinal fluids (aCSF). By adding 0.1% glyoxal to the probe solution, the assay allowed quantification of bisulfide in the presence of cysteine at the micro-molarity level. Using the AuNP-GSH-FITC probe, a droplet-based microfluidic fluorescent sensor was further constructed for online monitoring of bisulfide variation in the effluent of microdialysis. By using fluorescence microscope-charge-coupled device camera as the detector, the integrated microdialysis/microfluidic chip device achieved a detection limit of 2.0μM and a linear response from 5.0μM to 50μM for bisulfide in the tested sample. The method was successfully applied for the on-line measurement of bisulfide variation in aCSF and serum samples. It will be a very useful tool for tracking the variation of bisulfide or hydrogen sulfide in extracellular fluids.Biosensors & Bioelectronics 01/2014; 55C:438-445. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2013.12.056 · 6.45 Impact Factor